SOC 233 November 21, 2011
The ways we have fluid, global flows of things
1. Ethnoscapes: Refers to people.
Mobile groups or individuals.
Migrants or immigrants.
2. Technoscapes: Technology flowing across national boundaries.
Information technology flows globally.
3. Financescapes: Money that flows between nations; across national borders.
eg) Migrant sending home money.
eg) Currency that flows between nations.
eg) Company in one country that pays workers in another country.
4. Mediascapes: Media can be seen as extending beyond the borders of one nation-state.
Transmission to people around the world instantly through the use of media.
eg) Email, television, Internet.
5. Ideoscapes: Refers to ideologies.
Political images, political discourse that are generated by nation-states, but perpetuated on a
Awareness of what is happening on the ideological level of nation-states as a result of
Transnationalism : Multiple ties, relationships and interactions liking people or institutions across
The flows linking people or institutions on a global scale.
Transnational Practices: Activities that simultaneously transcend and link people or institutions across
more than one nation-state.
Note – Can occur at a micro-, meso- or macro- level.
Q – Are nation-states irrelevant?
No. See below. Understanding the Role of Nation-States
1. Nation-States Control Movement Across Boundaries
ie) Legislations, rules and regulations that allow you to enter or leave a country.
Ability to relocate or close doors.
Note – Borders play an important role.
2. Regulates Membership
Rights that are not equally given to individuals.
A result of the fears that come about through the movement of people.
eg) US - War on Terror.
4. Relationships Among States
Regulations placed upon individuals are dependent on the relationship between nation-states.
Note – Transnationalism places enormous emphasis on nation-states, whereas globalization does not.
Types of Transnational Practices:
1. Social: Maintenance of connections between nation-states.
Can link you to individuals across the globe through social relationships.
2. Political: People who join or oppose political parties.
The voice of non-residents and residents alike.
Ability to restrict voting; shaping politics.
3. Economic: The flows of money across nation-states.
Change in Landscape
Uniqueness of Current Transnational Practices:
Happening in much larger proportions than it did in the past.