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SOC 360 (14)
Lecture

nov 27

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 360
Professor
Darrell Mc Laughlin
Semester
Fall

Description
Sociolthy 360 November 27 2012 1 Housekeeping: Next week we will narrow down the questions for the final If you didn’t hand in your project it is not late until next Tuesday Terra Nullius and Sovereignty • Concept of open land • Justification of taking land from other people • Those in alliances with colonizers could receive the best resources • Ripples with consequences Human Rights v. Cultural Relativism • Only behaviour needs to be judged on a local, cultural, aspect – Relativist Post-Colonial theory • Resistance to colonization; • Break from colonial thought after independence and liberation • Base on discourse analysis, postmodernism and Marxist ideas • Wanted to escape the Enlightenment assumptions • Wanted to challenge colonial factors – a substance was left behind ◦ example: ▪ Jamaica • independence from Britain • high fuel costs – cost of everything rises • interest rates are high • Not just colonization process; look at before and after Gayatri Spivak • Hibernation of those effected • Ethical singularity: is approached when responses flow from both sides; • How can the colonized speak with its own voice? • Subaltern: (referring to persons who are socially, politically, and geographically outside of the hegemonic power structure). ◦ Hegemonic: the ideology of the dominate class becomes the ideology of the society ▪ examples of supporting hegemony wihtin society • land • hospitals • church/state • unions? • education • media • There are groups that found ways to escape hegemony • challenges to find a space within Socioloth 360 November 27 2012 2 ◦ local vs. Global ◦ fair trade • Strategic essentialism: through deconstruction, the Other may develop an agenda for social change yet maintain a critical distance and undermine the hegemonic discourse from the inside out. ◦ Women ◦ race Paulo Freire • Pedagogy of the oppressed • Develops a dialogical pedagogy whereby the cultural revolutionary and the campasino together deconstruct and reconstruct codifications of reality; • how can the oppressed learn? • Global south adapting to the process/ideologies of the global north • informed a generation of adult educations in the global south • deconstructing whats taking place and remolding it ◦ “isn't it funny how when you're carrying a hammer everything looks like a nail? Edward Said’s Orientalism • Orientalism • A Western style of thought that creates a false opposition between the Orient (East) and the Occident (West) • East naturalized as inferior to West • Academic Orientalism • Knowledge produced by academics, government experts • anyone writing and producing information on the orient. • Imaginative Orientalism • Representations including art, novels, poems, images that make a distinction between the Orient and the Occident • Institutional Orientalism • Institutions created by Europeans such that they could gain authority over, alter and rule the Orient • Social justice will only emerge when we unlearn methods of domination and articlate the Other on its own terms. • everything in the east is interfered with by everything in the west ◦ academic ▪ intercordia students: being asked how to teach/discipline Socioloth 360 November 27 2012 3 Homi Bhabha • Narrative constructions have tended to imprison the colonized within narrow identities; ◦ the given identities • Ambivalence always exists whenever colonial power attempt to dominate; ◦ gap between forces, dominate way of life • This ambivalence provides space (Liminal spaces) for alternative articulation of culture to emerge (hybridity); ◦ no longer seeing the world as black and white ◦ satires • Hybridity also made possible by mimicry – the slippage of meaning. Chapter 9 Key issues for Post modernists • Skeptical of any possibility of establishing foundations; • Tend to conduct external critiques; • Oppose positive jurisprudence (the articulation of a particular normative framework); • Incorporate an active conception of justice (owing a duty to others) • Key issues for post modernists • critical of modernity • problemizted development – bio and med --> better health care yet more people in poverty • try to activate a different form of justice Jean-Francois Lyotard • problem of linking justice to consensus • if we try and set global laws --> out of local context • An idea and practice of justice that is not linked to that of consensus; • Postmodern society is marked by a plethora of micro narratives; • Justice resides in the many locations one frequents; • The differend: the person who experiences justice from at least two different petite narratives which may leave them without a voice. • Differnd: ◦ one person walks off job, reality is called to duty ◦ racial minorities devalued within society ◦ mixed races: Metis ◦ bi-sexual • Maximize the multiplication of small narratives; • Only temporary contracts be invoke and narrowly exercised in time and Socioloth 360 November 27 2012 4 place; • Consensus is desirable only in petit narratives; • Justice consists in working at the limits of what rules permit, in order to invent new possibilities; • Move away from justice that is situated on the act and toward an orientation to otherness (mutually responsive understandings emerge, boundaries are often approached, challenged, and crossed, and new frameworks are established). • Lots of small narratives • sometimes temporary • consensus only in local conditions • dynamic process to deciding Derrida ’s Classic view • Justice has everything to do with orientation to the other • A duty to the other, • In making room for the other to speak and be heard; • Other: someone who doesn't share characteristics of the dominate group • justice should privilege the other Gilles Deleuze • Justice principles that emerge from active forces, the will to power, and lines of flight that produce constant mutation and change that further enhance these forces; • Justice must be attributed to the extent to which the overall quantity and quality dominate over reactive forces; • Justice emerges when reactive forces are challenged; • Justice equates to critical freedom (transgressing, transcending limits within which one has lived) and connected to institutions and social structures that maximize critical freedoms. • Will to power • changes through peoples desires • struggles for justice will encounter opposition • people living in poverty [south] are happier then people in the north ◦ security with valuing community over material goods Drucilla Cornell • Need to create an alternate space from which to think sexual differences and justice; • As sexuate beings, individuals orient themselves differently in the world; • Standard of equivalent evaluation: • Women’s inclusion in the moral community of persons; Sociolthy 360 November 27 2012 5 • A demand for fair and equitable treatment whenever our sexual difference needs to be taken into account • Beyond distributive justice to one that addresses the question of what scope of rights, opportunities, and social goods would be needed to maintain fr
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