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Soc 360 -- november 27th 2012.doc

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SOC 360
Darrell Mc Laughlin

Sociolthy 360 November 27 2012 1 Terra Nullius and Sovereignty  Concept of open land  Justification of taking land from other people  Those in alliances with colonizers could receive the best resources  Ripples with consequences Human Rights v. Cultural Relativism  Only behaviour needs to be judged on a local, cultural, aspect – Relativist Post Colonial theory  Resistance to colonization;  Break from colonial thought after independence and liberation  Base on discourse analysis, postmodernism and Marxist ideas  Wanted to escape the Enlightenment assumptions  Wanted to challenge colonial factors – a substance was left behind ◦ example: ▪ Jamaica  independence from Britain  high fuel costs – cost of everything rises  interest rates are high  Not just colonization process; look at before and after Gayatri Spivak  Hibernation of those effected  Ethical singularity: is approached when responses flow from both sides;  How can the colonized speak with its own voice?  Subaltern (referring to persons who are socially, politically, and geographically outside of the hegemonic power structure). ◦ Hegemonic: the ideology of the dominate class becomes the ideology of the society ▪ examples of supporting hegemony wihtin society  land  hospitals  church/state  unions?  education  media  There are groups that found ways to escape hegemony  challenges to find a space within ◦ local vs. Global ◦ fair trade  Strategic essentialism: through deconstruction, the Other may develop an agenda for social change yet maintain a critical distance and undermine the hegemonic discourse from the inside out. Sociolthy 360 November 27 2012 2 ◦ Women ◦ race Paulo Freire  Pedagogy of the oppressed  Develops a dialogical pedagogy whereby the cultural revolutionary and the campasino together deconstruct and reconstruct codifications of reality;  how can the oppressed learn?  Global south adapting to the process/ideologies of the global north  informed a generation of adult educations in the global south  deconstructing whats taking place and remolding it ◦ “isn't it funny how when you're carrying a hammer everything looks like a nail? Edward Said’s Orientalism  Orientalism  A Western style of thought that creates a false opposition between the Orient (East) and the Occident (West)  East naturalized as inferior to West  Academic Orientalism  Knowledge produced by academics, government experts  anyone writing and producing information on the orient.  Imaginative Orientalism  Representations including art, novels, poems, images that make a distinction between the Orient and the Occident  Institutional Orientalism  Institutions created by Europeans such that they could gain authority over, alter and rule the Orient  Social justice will only emerge when we unlearn methods of domination and articlate the Other on its own terms.  everything in the east is interfered with by everything in the west ◦ academic ▪ intercordia students: being asked how to teach/discipline Homi Bhabha  Narrative constructions have tended to imprison the colonized within narrow identities; ◦ the given identities  Ambivalence always exists whenever colonial power attempt to dominate; ◦ gap between forces, dominate way of life  This ambivalence provides space (Liminal spaces) for alternative articulation of culture to emerge (hybridity); Socioloth 360 November 27 2012 3 ◦ no longer seeing the world as black and white ◦ satires  Hybridity also made possible by mimicry – the slippage of meaning. Chapter 9 Key issues for Post modernists Skeptical of any possibility of establishing foundations; Tend to conduct external critiques; Oppose positive jurisprudence (the articulation of a particular normative framework); Incorporate an active conception of justice (owing a duty to others) Jean-Francois Lyotard An idea and practice of justice that is not linked to that of consensus; Postmodern society is marked by a plethora of micro narratives; Justice resides in the many locations one frequents; The differend: the person who experiences justice from at least two different petite narratives which may leave them without a voice. Lyotard ’s contribution to justice Maximize the multiplication of small narratives; Only temporary contracts be invoke and narrowly exercised in time and place; Consensus is desirable only in petit narratives; Justice consists in working at the limits of what rules permit, in order to invent new possibilities; Move away from justice that is situated on the act and toward an orientation to otherness (mutually responsive understandings emerge, boundaries are
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