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Soc 360 - October 16th 012.doc

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University of Saskatchewan
SOC 360
Darrell Mc Laughlin

Socioloth 360 October 16 2012 1 Housekeeping: anything highlighted in yellow is emphasized/important definitions we will be watching a movie in the first half of class next week Part one: Feminist – essentialist thinking − there is a biological basis for the differences in peoples behaviours Distributive justice: − how the fruits/products of society gets distributed Classic Social theories on Justice  Durkheim: the nature of social solidarity; ◦ saw himself as a doctor of society ▪ sociologist – analyze and prescribe behaiours ◦ emerging as a contract—peoples behaviour should be determined by the time ◦ Societies become increasingly differentiated and shifts the ideas of morality and justice and solidarity; ◦ The ideal contact of equity based on social value ▪ Sum of efforts; intensity of needs; satisfaction created  what is recognized  happiness factor ◦ Abnormal forms of division of labour undermine solidarity ▪ Anomic (too few norms); constraining rules; fulfilling activities deprivation.  Normlessness  during periods of transition we do not always know what normative behaviour is  we are going through a transitional stage right now  we look at roles of the eliets to know what normative behaviour is ▪ How might we relate abnormal division of labour to globalization? ◦ He is trying to make sense of the shifts in society ◦ the transition between periods – from when people knew exactly how to behave to when people didn't know the norms  Max Weber and rationalization ◦ sense of market and com-modification has been facilitated by nation- states Sociolthy 360 October 16 2012 2 ◦ in the modern society there is a rationalization with thinking ◦ Common interest of the state and market in producing rational legal systems (formal rationality); ▪ he is concerned about it ▪ he tries to conceptualize the dilemma  the iron cage ◦ Privileging individual responsibility over collective responsibility in contractual justice; ◦ Skeptical about genuine justice … privileged group ’s power over others through laws; ▪ Looks at equality of opportunity but ignores equality of conditions and outcomes;  Max Weber and other forms of rationality ◦ Substantive rationality: other goals are considered; ▪ ex: rather than just being able to produce the cheapest car, we also want it to be the least polluting ◦ Substantive irrationality: other cultural perspective that may determine what is just; ▪ ex: rather than just looking at something from the perspective of capitalism we look outside the box  the energy/spirit within nature ◦ Formal irrationality: the rationality of specific authority ▪ a type of rationality that would come from a different culture, from an authority figure who doesn't have to explain/justify their behaviour ◦ In sum for Weber justice exist where arrangements are seen as legitimate because they are arrived at because of the existing (unequal) distribution of property. ▪ Depending on what we take as the basis of rationality,  Marx and the modes of production ◦ Material conditions under a mode of productions determines consciousness ◦ multidisciplinary ◦ social consequences of human behaviours ◦ material conditions ▪ how controlling them effects peoples consciousness and peoples behaviours  Marx: Dialectical materialism ◦ how social change takes place ◦ thesis --> counter thesis, --> synthesis --> new organization//mode of production ◦ Dialectics: a way of seeing history and society as the result of oppositions, contradictions and tensions from which social change can Sociology 360 October 16 2012 3 emerge (Hegel) ▪ Human consciousness and human interaction with the material world could change society ▪ tension  exploitation  between nation-States  between social classes ◦ rich and poor ◦ working class – what there status within the classes  governance  cultural values  environment – inter-generational ◦ Idealism: human mind and consciousness are more important in understanding the human condition than is the material world ◦ Relations of production based on power ▪ capacity of certain groups within society ◦ Base/Superstructure ▪ Dynamic relationship between the material and social elements of society ▪ Base : material and economic foundation for society. Includes the forces and relations of production ▪ Superstructure: all of the things that society values and aspires to once its material needs are met. Includes religion, politics and law.  Education  legal assistance Sociolthy 360 October 16 2012 4 ◦ Proletariat (the workers) and bourgeoisie (rich owners) ◦ Alienation: the process by which workers are disconnected from what they produce ▪ from one another, from nature, from society ◦ Exploitation: the difference between what workers are paid and the wealth they create for the owners ◦ Ideology: set of beliefs and values that support and justify the ruling class of society ▪ Dominant ideology maintains the position of the ruling elite  hegemony: where the ideology of the dominate class becomes the dominate ideology of the society, it shapes what is legitimate within the society ▪ a way of not seeing ◦ False consciousness: belief in and support of the system that oppresses you ◦ Class consciousness: recognition of domination and oppression and the collective action that occurs to address it; a class-in-itself to a class-for- itself  Marx and justice in the current crisis of capitalism ◦ v=qOP2V_np2c0%26feature=playe r_embedded  What constitutes justice for Marxists ◦ Instrumental Marxist: Economic power = political power ◦ Structural Marxist: Use-value is replaced by exchange-value of the universal commodity (commoditization process) ◦ Structural interpellationist Marxist: rights based on state determined rights resulting from mobilization of interests and struggles – capitalist or labour ◦ Constitutive Marxist: co-production of justice between base and superstructure; ◦ Justice of solidarity: acknowledging differences in ability and need Toward a Social Justice model  Miller ’s pluralistic theory of justice: ◦ relational based – emphasis of Durkheim in it – can also see Weber in it ◦ Justice in modes of relationships: ▪ Solidaristic community: common ethos and identity  similar to durkheim  oneness within a society  politics, religion  needs-based ▪ instrumental association: principle of just deserts (contribution = rewards); Sociolthy 360 October 16 2012 5  people coming together to produce things  production plants  the efficiency of the unit  ex: restaurants  contribution towards the goal ▪ Citizenship: abstract rights as citizen;  because of membership in a community you are seen as having access to fundamental rights that is foundational to all citizens ◦ health care ◦ education ◦ protection under the law ▪ Holding the three criteria in constant balance  Recognition or redistribution ◦ Honneth: Just distribution based on recognition – love, law, and achievement; ▪ European context ▪ people get recognized different ways depending on the social relations they are involved with ◦ Fraser: justice based on the mutuality of recognition and distribution and parity of participation beyond the values of the structure of capitalism through discourses of equals. ▪ American context ▪ tries to bring together the recognition and parody aspect ▪ how do we do that on a national level, a community level, and a global level? Part Two Toward Transformative Justice  Limitative of restorative justice: failure to deal with structural issues; doesn’t get to the root of the problem; postmodernists suggest th
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