AFM481 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Downside Risk, Key Management, Decision-MakingPremium
2 pages45 viewsSpring 2018
SchoolUniversity of Waterloo
DepartmentAccounting & Financial Management
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Designing products or services to meet the needs and wants of customers
Producing products with zero (or minimal) defects and waste○
Maintaining low inventories○
operations throughout the value chain to deliver products and services that exceed customer
Time - meet or exceed customer's expectations of responsiveness in production, delivery, and
Innovation - innovative products in response to customer demand result in ongoing growth and
We want to continuously improve○
Management accountants help managers track and compare a company's performance on KSF to
competitors and serve as benchmark
Central to success is a rigorous decision making process○
Successful strategy implementation requires more than value chain and supply chain analysis and
execution of KSF.
e.g. Nicole's MIS reported a steady decline in revenue so want to increase revenue without
increasing costs (this is for a fictional national newspaper)
Identify the problem and uncertainties1.
Need relevant and reliable information to help managers understand uncertainties and
e.g. Nicole asked her advertising sales manager to talk to current and potential advertisers
to get a better understanding of the market. Also review the effect that past price increases
had on readership
Obtain information 2.
Nicole's analysis of the marketing information indicates that readers would be upset if price
increase and significant drop in readership volume
In contrast, Nicole would not lose any advertisers if the advertise rates increases (more
revenue for them)
Make prediction about the future3.
Increase advertising rates by 4%a.
Steps 1-4 is planning - purposeful analysis of information to select and rank in importance
the goals of an organization
The most important planning tool is a budget- is the quantitative expression of
management's proposed plan of action; it is an aid to coordinating what must be done and
when to implement a successful plan.
Decide on one of the available alternatives4.
Managers at the newspaper place take actions to implement the March 2016 budget.
Management accountants collect information to follow through on how actual performance
compares to planned or budgeted performance. The comparison of actual performance to
budgeted performance is the control or post decision role of information
Implement the decision, evaluate performance, and learn5.
Decision making, planning, and control: the five step decision making process
Rewards linked to achievement motivate managers○
A budget serves as both a control and a planning tool since it is a comparison benchmark
against actual performance
When exercising control, managers compare actual and targeted nonfinancial measures as well as
financial measures to take corrective actions
Good implementation requires the marketing, editorial, and production department to work
together and coordinate their actions and develop action plans
The questions as to why in exhibit 1-4, everything is unfavourable could prompt the newspaper's
publisher to take subsequent actions e.g. adding more sales personnel or making changes in
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