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Lecture 4

AHS 150 Lecture 4: AHS 150 Lecture 1 Study Notes Unit 1 Chapter 1

8 Pages
88 Views
Spring 2017

Department
Applied Health Sciences
Course Code
AHS150
Professor
Alison Smith
Lecture
4

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AHS 150 Lecture 1 Study Notes Unit 1 Levels of Organization
Chapter 1 - An Introduction to the Human Body
Anatomy
To cut apart
Scientific study of the body’s structures and how they relate to one another
People who dissect body, to cut things -> be able to get a close look to different body ad be able to
understand them more deeply
Gross vs. Microscopic
o Gross consider large structures such as the brain
o Microscopic deal with the same structure, though at a different scale
Regional vs. Systemic
Physiology
Scientific study of chemistry & physics of body structures and how they work together to support functions
of life
The function and how things works together
Form and Function are intimately related -> which is why it makes way more sense to study Anatomy and
Physiology together
Levels of Structural Organization of the Human Body
The organization of the body often is discussed in terms of six distinct levels of increasing complexity,
from the smallest chemical building blocks to a unique human organism
All matters are compose by elements
Organ System of the Human Body
Integumentary System
Skin, hair nails
Encloses internal body structures
Sites of many sensory receptors
Protection for the body
By protecting the internal organs
Prevent water loss
First line of defense in case you are sick
Heat regulation (sweat)
Vitamin D is coming from the skin with the sunlight, and skin can also eliminate waste
Skeletal System
Cartilages, bones, joints
Supports the body
Enables movement (with muscular system)
Supporting and protecting the body and internal organs
Provide spaces for muscle attachment and allow and support movement
Bone marrow is source of stem cell, which is where the blood comes from (hematopoietic stem cell),
storage for minerals (calcium)
Muscular System
Enables movement (with skeletal system)
Helps maintain body temperature
When you are cold, your brain sends messages and let your body to shiver
Stable your posture
Important for facial expression
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Nervous System
Brain and spinal cord, sensory organ (eyes, ear) to detect information
Detects and processes sensory information
Activities bodily responses
Important role in homeostatic (sensor detect change, control interprets and responds by sending
a single to, effect causing muscular contraction, or glandular secretions) -> control by the
endocrine system
Endocrine System
Secretes hormones
Regulates bodily processes
Produce and secret hormones (chemical message) and they will bind to a receptor to produce a response
Cardiovascular System
Heart blood, carry oxygen and nutrients (glucose) to the rest of the body / cell
Temperature regulation
Water balance
Maintaining pH (acid and base) balance
Help to guard us form infection help fight off pathogen
Lymphatic System
Returns fluid to blood
Defends against pathogens
They vessels here is different from the blood vessel, lymph nodes are important for immune system
Thymus can able to recognize the pathogens
Respiratory System
Removes carbon dioxide from the body
Delivers oxygen to blood
Lungs, nasal passage (nose, mouth)
Main function gas exchange
Maintain acid and base balance through the exchange of carbon dioxide
Digestive System
Processes food for use by the body
Removes wastes from undigested food
Liver produce digestive enzyme, break food down into smaller unit and can be deliver to body, absorb
nutrients
Urinary System
Kidneys and bladder
Control water balance in the body
Removes wastes form blood and excretes them
Kidneys removes waste from the body
Produce urine and removing waste
Regulate volume of water and blood
Maintain acid and base balance
Male Reproductive System
Produces sex hormones and gametes
Delivers gametes to female
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find more resources at oneclass.com
Female Reproductive System
Produces sex hormones
Support embryo / fetus until birth and produces milk for infant
Function of Human Life
Organization
o Compartmentalization: Separation of internal & external environments
Cell theory
Cell plasma membranes & intracellular organelles
Cells organized into tissues
Lining of body cavities, blood vessels, digestive tract, etc.
Integumentary system
o Structure and function are correlated at all levels of organization (Sperm cells)
o The cell is an organism’s basic unit of structure and function
o The cell theory
All organisms are composed of one or more cells
The cell is the smallest unit that has the properties of life
Cells arise only from the growth and division of preexisting cells
Metabolism
o Convert energy from one form into another
o Sum of anabolic and catabolic reactions that occur in the body
o Breaking down (catabolic) releasing energy -> making (anabolic) require energy
Responsiveness
o Excitability: sense & respond to changes in the environment
Movement
o Includes actions at joints of body as well as motions of organs and even cells
Development, growth & reproduction
o Development
Differentiation: unspecialized to specialized cell
Growth: increase in body size
Renewal replace new tissues
o Reproduction
Formation of new organism from parent organisms
Maintenance of homeostasis
Requirements for Human Life
Oxygen -> aerobic respiration -> ATP
o Brain cells most sensitive to hypoxia / anoxia
Nutrients
o Water
o Macronutrients
Energy-yielding: carbohydrate & lipids
Body-building: proteins
o Micronutrients
Vitamins and Minerals
Narrow range of temperature
o Deaths form heat stroke or hypothermia
o Outside normal range
Proteins / enzymes structure and or function change
Chemical reactions of metabolism cannot proceed
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Description
AHS 150 Lecture 1 Study Notes Unit 1 Levels of Organization Chapter 1 - An Introduction to the Human Body Anatomy To cut apart Scientific study of the bodys structures and how they relate to one another People who dissect body, to cut things -> be able to get a close look to different body ad be able to understand them more deeply Gross vs. Microscopic o Gross consider large structures such as the brain o Microscopic deal with the same structure, though at a different scale Regional vs. Systemic Physiology Scientific study of chemistry & physics of body structures and how they work together to support functions of life The function and how things works together Form and Function are intimately related -> which is why it makes way more sense to study Anatomy and Physiology together Levels of Structural Organization of the Human Body The organization of the body often is discussed in terms of six distinct levels of increasing complexity, from the smallest chemical building blocks to a unique human organism All matters are compose by elements Organ System of the Human Body Integumentary System Skin, hair nails Encloses internal body structures Sites of many sensory receptors Protection for the body By protecting the internal organs Prevent water loss First line of defense in case you are sick Heat regulation (sweat) Vitamin D is coming from the skin with the sunlight, and skin can also eliminate waste Skeletal System Cartilages, bones, joints Supports the body Enables movement (with muscular system) Supporting and protecting the body and internal organs Provide spaces for muscle attachment and allow and support movement Bone marrow is source of stem cell, which is where the blood comes from (hematopoietic stem cell), storage for minerals (calcium) Muscular System Enables movement (with skeletal system) Helps maintain body temperature When you are cold, your brain sends messages and let your body to shiver Stable your posture Important for facial expression Nervous System Brain and spinal cord, sensory organ (eyes, ear) to detect information Detects and processes sensory information Activities bodily responses Important role in homeostatic (sensor detect change, control interprets and responds by sending a single to, effect causing muscular contraction, or glandular secretions) -> control by the endocrine system Endocrine System Secretes hormones Regulates bodily processes Produce and secret hormones (chemical message) and they will bind to a receptor to produce a response Cardiovascular System Heart blood, carry oxygen and nutrients (glucose) to the rest of the body / cell Temperature regulation Water balance Maintaining pH (acid and base) balance Help to guard us form infection help fight off pathogen Lymphatic System Returns fluid to blood Defends against pathogens They vessels here is different from the blood vessel, lymph nodes are important for immune system Thymus can able to recognize the pathogens Respiratory System Removes carbon dioxide from the body Delivers oxygen to blood Lungs, nasal passage (nose, mouth) Main function gas exchange Maintain acid and base balance through the exchange of carbon dioxide Digestive System Processes food for use by the body Removes wastes from undigested food Liver produce digestive enzyme, break food down into smaller unit and can be deliver to body, absorb nutrients Urinary System Kidneys and bladder Control water balance in the body Removes wastes form blood and excretes them Kidneys removes waste from the body Produce urine and removing waste Regulate volume of water and blood Maintain acid and base balance Male Reproductive System Produces sex hormones and gametes Delivers gametes to femaleFemale Reproductive System Produces sex hormones Support embryo / fetus until birth and produces milk for infant Function of Human Life Organization o Compartmentalization: Separation of internal & external environments Cell theory Cell plasma membranes & intracellular organelles Cells organized into tissues Lining of body cavities, blood vessels, digestive tract, etc. Integumentary system o Structure and function are correlated at all levels of organization (Sperm cells) o The cell is an organisms basic unit of structure and function o The cell theory All organisms are composed of one or more cells The cell is the smallest unit that has the properties of life Cells arise only from the growth and division of preexisting cells Metabolism o Convert energy from one form into another o Sum of anabolic and catabolic reactions that occur in the body o Breaking down (catabolic) releasing energy -> making (anabolic) require energy
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