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Lecture 1

AHS 150 Lecture 1: AHS 150 Lecture 4 Study Notes Unit 1 Chapter 3 (1)

5 Pages

Applied Health Sciences
Course Code
Alison Smith

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AHS 150 Lecture 4 Study Notes Unit 1 Levels of Organization Chapter 3 The Cellular Level of Organization Part 1 The Cell Membrane Overview The functions of tissues and organs depend on cells that are highly specialized in both their structure and function Basic Structure and Function of all animal cells How cell become specialized The Cell Theory All organisms are composed of one or more cells The cell is the smallest unit that has the properties of life Cells arise only from the growth and division of preexisting cells Parts of the Cell Plasma membrane Cytoplasm o Cytosol: Semi-fluid, gel-like substance where many enzymatic reactions occur Organelles o Cytoskeleton, Ribosomes, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi Complex, Lysosomes, Mitochondria, Peroxisomes Nucleus o Largest organelle, the information center of the cell Structure and Composition of the Cell Membrane Bilayer of phospholipids It consists of two adjacent sheets of phospholipids, arranged tail to tail The hydrophobic tails associate with one another, forming the interior of the membrane The polar heads contact the fluid inside and outside Lipid bilayer has various types of membrane proteins o The cell membrane of the cell is a phospholipid bilayer containing many different molecular components, including proteins and cholesterol, some with carbohydrate groups attached Membrane Proteins Integral membrane proteins: Embedded in the membrane so spans the lipid bilayer o Ion channels Easier way to let the substance to cross the membrane (for ions) through protein channel ion channel (sodium, potassium) o Carriers / transporters o Receptors: Cell recognition protein that binds a specific ligand (insulin binding insulin receptor) Ligand help bind specific substance make a pathway and an transportero Glycoproteins: Protein with carbohydrates attached, usually on extracellular side Important for recognition -> Glycocalyx coating formed from carbohydrates on extracellular surface of cell membrane give identity to the cell (different sugar groups) Peripheral Membrane Proteins o Can be attached to inner or outer surface of lipid bilayer or an integral protein Digestive enzymes on surface of intestinal cells (lumen side) Selective Permeability Only substances meeting certain criteria can pass through membrane unaided -> hydrophobic interior and tight packing of tails are the main bottleneck Different type of fluids within the body Intracellular fluid (ICF) o Fluid interior of the cell also called cytosol Extracellular fluid (ECF) the fluid environment outside the enclosure of the cell membrane o Interstitial fluid ECF that fills the spaces between cells a
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