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Lecture 1

AHS 150 Lecture 1: AHS 150 Lecture 4 Study Notes Unit 1 Chapter 3 (1)

5 Pages
25 Views
Spring 2017

Department
Applied Health Sciences
Course Code
AHS150
Professor
Alison Smith
Lecture
1

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AHS 150 Lecture 4 Study Notes Unit 1 Levels of Organization
Chapter 3 The Cellular Level of Organization
Part 1 The Cell Membrane
Overview
The functions of tissues and organs depend on cells that are highly specialized in both their
structure and function
Basic Structure and Function of all animal cells
How cell become specialized
The Cell Theory
All organisms are composed of one or more cells
The cell is the smallest unit that has the properties of life
Cells arise only from the growth and division of preexisting cells
Parts of the Cell
Plasma membrane
Cytoplasm
o Cytosol: Semi-fluid, gel-like substance where many enzymatic reactions occur
Organelles
o Cytoskeleton, Ribosomes, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi Complex, Lysosomes,
Mitochondria, Peroxisomes
Nucleus
o Largest organelle, the information center of the cell
Structure and Composition of the Cell Membrane
Bilayer of phospholipids
It consists of two adjacent sheets of
phospholipids, arranged tail to tail
The hydrophobic tails associate with one
another, forming the interior of the
membrane
The polar heads contact the fluid inside
and outside
Lipid bilayer has various types of
membrane proteins
o The cell membrane of the cell is
a phospholipid bilayer containing
many different molecular components, including proteins and cholesterol, some with
carbohydrate groups attached
Membrane Proteins
Integral membrane proteins: Embedded in the membrane so spans the lipid bilayer
o Ion channels
Easier way to let the substance to cross the membrane (for ions) through
protein channel ion channel (sodium, potassium)
o Carriers / transporters
o Receptors: Cell recognition protein that binds a specific ligand (insulin binding insulin
receptor)
Ligand help bind specific substance make a pathway and an transporter
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o Glycoproteins: Protein with carbohydrates attached, usually on extracellular side
Important for recognition -> Glycocalyx coating formed from carbohydrates on
extracellular surface of cell membrane give identity to the cell (different sugar
groups)
Peripheral Membrane Proteins
o Can be attached to inner or outer surface of lipid bilayer or an integral protein
Digestive enzymes on surface of intestinal cells (lumen side)
Selective Permeability
Only substances meeting certain criteria can
pass through membrane unaided ->
hydrophobic interior and tight packing of tails
are the main bottleneck
Different type of fluids within the body
Intracellular fluid (ICF)
o Fluid interior of the cell also called
cytosol
Extracellular fluid (ECF) the fluid
environment outside the enclosure of the cell
membrane
o Interstitial fluid ECF that fills the
spaces between cells and is NOT
contained within blood vessels
o Plasma the ECF in blood vessels
o Lymph the ECF in lymphatic vessels
o Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord
Transport across the cell membrane
Passive transport
o Movement of substances across the membrane down a concentration gradient and
without the use of energy (ATP)
Diffusion, osmosis
Active transport
o Movement of substances across the membrane against a concentration gradient using
ATP or another source of energy
Active transporter such as Na+/K+ ATPase
Vesicle transport: Endocytosis / exocytosis
Passive transport
Concentration gradient: difference in concentration of a substance across a space
Diffusion: Movement of particles from on area of higher concentration to an area of lower
concentration
o Simple diffusion
o Facilitated diffusion
o Osmosis
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Description
AHS 150 Lecture 4 Study Notes Unit 1 Levels of Organization Chapter 3 The Cellular Level of Organization Part 1 The Cell Membrane Overview The functions of tissues and organs depend on cells that are highly specialized in both their structure and function Basic Structure and Function of all animal cells How cell become specialized The Cell Theory All organisms are composed of one or more cells The cell is the smallest unit that has the properties of life Cells arise only from the growth and division of preexisting cells Parts of the Cell Plasma membrane Cytoplasm o Cytosol: Semi-fluid, gel-like substance where many enzymatic reactions occur Organelles o Cytoskeleton, Ribosomes, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi Complex, Lysosomes, Mitochondria, Peroxisomes Nucleus o Largest organelle, the information center of the cell Structure and Composition of the Cell Membrane Bilayer of phospholipids It consists of two adjacent sheets of phospholipids, arranged tail to tail The hydrophobic tails associate with one another, forming the interior of the membrane The polar heads contact the fluid inside and outside Lipid bilayer has various types of membrane proteins o The cell membrane of the cell is a phospholipid bilayer containing many different molecular components, including proteins and cholesterol, some with carbohydrate groups attached Membrane Proteins Integral membrane proteins: Embedded in the membrane so spans the lipid bilayer o Ion channels Easier way to let the substance to cross the membrane (for ions) through protein channel ion channel (sodium, potassium) o Carriers / transporters o Receptors: Cell recognition protein that binds a specific ligand (insulin binding insulin receptor) Ligand help bind specific substance make a pathway and an transportero Glycoproteins: Protein with carbohydrates attached, usually on extracellular side Important for recognition -> Glycocalyx coating formed from carbohydrates on extracellular surface of cell membrane give identity to the cell (different sugar groups) Peripheral Membrane Proteins o Can be attached to inner or outer surface of lipid bilayer or an integral protein Digestive enzymes on surface of intestinal cells (lumen side) Selective Permeability Only substances meeting certain criteria can pass through membrane unaided -> hydrophobic interior and tight packing of tails are the main bottleneck Different type of fluids within the body Intracellular fluid (ICF) o Fluid interior of the cell also called cytosol Extracellular fluid (ECF) the fluid environment outside the enclosure of the cell membrane o Interstitial fluid ECF that fills the spaces between cells a
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