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University of Waterloo
ANTH 100
Jennifer Liu

ANTH 102 JAN. 11 RECAP: 1. The concept of culture (definition and problems) 2. Brief history of cultural anthropology and perspectives AdventurersMontesquieucultural evolutioncultural relativism FUNCTIONALISM  Bronislaw Malinowski early 20 century  Idea that culture is a biological organism in which parts function together in the interest of the maintenance of the whole  No way of dealing with change Margaret Mead th  Early 20 century th  Believed Applied Anthropology shouldn’t be considered as a 5 subfield 4 UNIVERSAL PRACTICES 1. Eating  What we eat, don’t eat. What foods cannot be eaten together  Can create social bonds  Special preparation ex. Vegetarian  Eating etiquette  One person’s delicacy is another’s disgusting food 2. Drinking  What do we/they drink? When? With whom?  Can create social bonds  In India water is served and consumed at the end of meal  Men consume more alcohol than women  Beer drinking rituals at university 3. Sleeping  Who sleeps where and with whom?  US –“early to bed early to rise…”  Tokyo – “excessive daytime sleepiness” varies by gender/marital status 4. Eliminating  What kind of toilets? Hole in the ground? High tech?  Private or public? SYMBOLS  An object, word, or action with a culturally defined meaning that stands for something else with which it has no necessary or natural relationship  We organize our worlds through symbols “When I’m nervous I get butterflies”  Culture is based on symbols CULTURE IS LEARNED  Most of unselfconscious  Hard to recognize what’s our cultural learning because its our background  Some learning is intended through formal education ANTH 102 JAN. 11 CULTURES ARE INTEGRATED  “To state that cultures are internally integrated is to assert the principle of holism”  Must study it holistically – studying just one or two aspects can be misleading CULTURE IS MULTIFACETED AND COMPLEX  Thus targeted interventions often fail or have deleterious consequences when other aspects are not taken into consideration too  Consider role of supernatural and practices of body decoration as marker of identity and status CULTURES INTERACT AND CHANGE  Cultures interact with each other and change each other through contact such as international development projects, education, tourism  Globalization is a major force of contemporary cultural change Cultural interaction 1. CLASH OF CIVILIZATION  Cultural/religious differences to fuel conflict in post cold-war era  The West and the Rest
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