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Anth 101 - Chapters 1-7

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ANTH 100
Keriann Mc Googan

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Anth 101 – Midterm Notes Chapter 1 Cultural Anthropology - Culture in non human primates, early hominins, global patterns and belief. Interest came from early explorers. Culture – standards are socially learned; we learn culture rather than acquire it. Includes gender roles, religion, food etc. Ethnologists – people who study culture patterns. Modern anthropologists study sub groups within a larger population even if they are a member of that population. Linguistic Anthropology – study of human speech and language . Historical linguists (usually study languages without a written form), structural linguists (how contemporary languages differ from basic structure and construction) , socio linguists (how language differs in different social situations) Archaeology - Study of early cultures and lifeways through the recovery and analysis of material remains.Gain information about human behaviour, social organization, subsistence techniques. Pre historic archaeology – human behaviour from the very distant past, older than 5000 years. Historic – written records are available and used with findings. Physical/Biological Anthropology -- Study of human biology within the framework of evothtion. Ethhasis on the interaction between biology and culture. Human evolution. First came between 18 and 19 century. Scientists were beginning to doubt the literal interpretation of the bible. Darwins work has helped shape physical/biological anthropology. 4 major sub disciplines ... Paleoanthropology - Anatomical and behavioural evolution of humans as shown in the fossil record.Primate palaeontology – study of the primate fossil record. Identify early human and human like species Primatology - the study of non-human primates. Similarities and differences between humans and their closest living relatives. Help us understand the natural forces that have shaped our own behaviour. Can teach a lot about ourselves and our ancestors. Ex. Jane Goodall Human Biology - Variation among human populations and adaptive significance. Ex. Skin colour, body proportions. Nutrition – interested in understanding the relationship between various dietary components among populations. Genetics – interested in looking into the evolutionary characteristics between humans and primates. Skeletal Biology - Osteology – the study of the skeleton. Paleopathology – study of disease and trauma in ancient skeletal populations. Forensic Anthropology – help identify skeletal remains. Applied Anthropology – practical application of anthropological theories and methods outside academia. Ex . medical anthropology Relevance of Anthropology - Contributes to our understanding of human beings everywhere, the variation between human population. Avoid misunderstandings between people; begin to understand the development of the human species. We will begin to understand many types of people. Understand the place of humans in the biological world – human impact on the planet. The Scientific Method - Approach used by physical anthropologists. Science = body of knowledge gained through observation and experimentation. Question, hypothesis, data collection/analysis and conclusion. Identify a practical problem or question – ex. Problem – car won’t start, question – why won’t my car start? Research – cars require gasoline to run, hypothesis – my car won’t start because it’s out of gas. Hypothesis (premlinal explanation, there to be tested/questioned) vs. theory (broad statement of scientific relationships, or underlying principles that has been substantially verified by a series of tests).Test the hypothesis by collecting data that can be studied or analyzed. Question. Critical Thinking – key part of science. Evaluate, compare, analyze, critique ANTH 101 – Chapter 2 Common misconceptions - hot topic in society, there is a lack of understanding of what evolution is. Evolution is not explored fully in high school classes. 1. ‘Only a theory’ – term theory is misused, theory – substantially verified through repeated testing of hypotheses. 2. ‘Evolved’ from monkeys – ‘why are human and monkeys still around today?’ – We did not evolve from monkeys or apes as we know them today. Humans share a common ancestor with chimpanzees 6-8 million years ago. Lineage diverged from monkeys 20 million years ago. Evolved along different evolutionary paths. 3. Evolution is a linear trend towards complexity –idea of scale. Comes from the idea of ‘the great chain of being’. Developed by Aristotle 384-322 BCE. Order from simple to complex, least perfect beings to perfect beings. It’s not a linear progression. There are multiple branches. Evolution Defined – succinctly define evolution, change in the genetic structure of a population through time. Evolution works via natural selection History of Evolutionary Thought – Darwin was the first to explain the mechanics of this theory, In middle ages most Europeans believed that most aspects of nature were static, influenced by strong religious system at the time. Fixity of species – species do not change. Argument from Design - grand design of God. Grand designer had completed the universe recently th The Scientific Revolution – exploration 15 century, becoming more aware of the world around them. And it was hard to deny that change exists on earth – earthquakes, volcanoes, fossils. Development of Evolution  James Usher – Irish arch bishop, analyzed aspects of the bible and determined when the earth was created. 4004 B.C  Alfred Russel Wallace – independently researched the same conclusion as Darwin. 1855 published a paper suggesting that species were descended from other species.  John Ray - 1627-1705 – a minister, developed concept of species. First to recognize groups of plants and animals could be distinguished from other groups by their ability to mate. Recognized that species frequently shared similarities with other species. Grouped these together in a second level called genus. First to use the labels genus and species.  Carolus Linneaus – 1707 – 1778 - Swedish naturalist, created system to classify plants and animals. Genus and specie names. (Ex. Homo sapiens). Taxonomy – branch of science concerned with the rules of classifying organisms. Included humans in classification, was highly controversial to put humans with animals.  Jean- Baptiste Lamarck – 1744 – 1829 – first to explain the process of evolution. Argued that a trait acquired by an animal in its life time could be passed on to its offspring. Inheritance of acquired characteristics. Giraffe theory – reaches leaves on top branch, neck becomes slightly longer over time. Coined the term biology to refer to living organisms.  Geogres Cuvier – 1769-1832 – French vertebrate paleontologist. Introduced the concept of extinction to explain the disppearence of animals.  Thomas Malthus – 1766 – 1834 – English economist. Would later inspire Charles Darwin. Wrote an essay on the principle of population. Argued that populations can increase as long as there is enough food to support the rising population, as soon as there isn’t enough the population growth would be limited.  Charles lyell – 1797-1875- considered the founder of modern geology. Was a barrister, geologist, darwins friend and mentor. Natural forces such as wind, erosion, frost etc. All contributed in the past to produce the geological landscape that exists in the present.  Charles Darwin – 1809 – 1882 – helped formulate the concept of natural selection. Board the HS Beagle and collected information on the Galapagos island finches. Began to explore variation. Natural Selection – Alfred Russel Wallace 1823- 1913 – independently came up with the idea of natural selection. Articles outlining evolution and natural selection – led Darwin to publish “on the origin of species” Darwin’s Postulates 1. Ability of a population to expand is infinite but ability of environment to support populations is finite. Competition for food. 2. Organisms within populations vary, variation affects their ability to survive and reproduce. Favourable variations are going to survive within a population and unfavourable would not. 3. Variations are transmitted from parents to offspring. 4. Environments determine if traits are beneficial Fitness – measure of reproductive success of individuals, genetics contribution to next generation. Reproductive Success – number of offspring produced and reared to reproductive age. The Mechanism of Natural Selection – Darwin had difficulty explaining sources of variation. Blending inheritance – the offspring receives various traits, becomes intermediate form. Short mother, tall father. All offspring would be intermediate in height. Terms  Fixity of species – notion that species once created can never change; an idea opposed to theories of biological evolution.  Binomomial nomenclature - (binomial = two names) convention established by carolus Linnaeus. Genus and species names are used to refer to species  Catastrophism – view that earths geological landscape is the result of violent cataclysmic events. Promoted by cuvier in opposition to Lamarck.  Uniformitarianism – theory that the earths features are the result of long term processes that continue to operate in the present as they did in the past.  Transmutation – the change of one species to another.  Selective pressures – factors in the environment that influence reproductive success in individuals  Earliest human ancestors evolved from a species that lived some 5-8 million years ago. Was the last common ancestor we share with chimpanzees  Monkeys are still around because as lineages diverged each group went its separate way A Brief History of Evolutionary Thought  first took place in western Europe. Made possible by advances in scientific thinking  intellectuals such as arabs, Indians and Chinese and in ancient Greece had notions of biological evolution but were never formulated into a theory. ANTH 101 – The Film 1. INTRODUCTION - Why Has Darwin Been So Misunderstood?  Evolution is generally known. Darwin pointed out that he tried to do two things - convince the world of evolution and he was also trying ton propose a mechanism in which evolution worked.  It is philosophically radically, people try to avoid it.  It is really very simple, 3 facts Stands against so many traditional hopes and bias’s of our society Question: From what three inferences does the theory of natural selection follow? All organisms produce more offspring to survive. All organisms vary within a species. Some variation is inherited. 2. Paradox - Why did Darwin wait 21 years to publish his work? Darwin was not very intelligent. 3. Riddle Two - Darwin was not the official naturalist, it was McCormick. Took extra passengers on the H.S beagle, Darwin attended. Fitzroy would be alone the entire time and the psychological toll was too great, previous captain had killed himself. Brought others to combat loneliness. Fitzroy suffered from manic depression. Darwin went as Fitzroy’s social companion Question: Why did Darwin never use the word evolution?  Was not common in the English language at the time. Means unfolding. Darwins theory is nonprogressive. We want to predict progress. It meant progress and his theory was non progressivest ICONS OF EVOLUTION IN POP-CULTURE AND SCIENTIFIC TEXT Question: What is the primary modern icon of evolution? Ladder of descent. Question: What is wrong with that icon? Racist context. Lightening of skin. 4. THE THIRD RIDDLE - Why did Darwin wait until 1859 until publishing his research? Fear. Fear of what? Evolution was the most common unorthodoxy, he was afraid to expose his belief in materialism (there is only matter, and all things spirited are really just manifestations of properties of matter) Question: Summarize the three radicalism’s revealed by Gould’s riddles, and discuss their relationship to the continued resistance to, and misunderstanding of Darwin. The beliefs of adam smith, Materialism, progressionism . Nature existed for 4 ½ billion years until we got here. Cannot define the meaning of life. There is a notion of nature in the old testament. Darwin died in 1881, wished to be buried in his town. Buried at westminister abbey at the feet of sir Isaac newton Molecular Basis of Life - Understand how gene works and how traits are transmitted. Human evolution, adaptation, variation. Molecular genetics links biology to chemistry and physics. Consists explanatory framework.Provides important data for reconstructing evolutionary history. Genetics – study of how genes work, genes = unit of heredity, knowledge of mechanisms of heredity is fairly recent, last 5 decades. Cells - Fundamental units of life in living organisms. Prokaryotic cells – single-celled ex. Bacteria, blue-green algae. No chromosomes, no cell nucleus. Eukaryotic Cells – composed of carbs, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins. Do contain a nucleus, many organelles. 2 acids within nucleus – DNA and RNA 2 types of eukaryotic cells -Somatic cells – body tissue. Gametes – sex cells, egg cells and sperm cells. Unite with another gamete and form a zygote. DNA - Deoxyribonucleic acid. Double-stranded molecule that contains genetic code main component of chromosomes. Directs all cellular functions. Chemical bases of DNA = recipe for making proteins, help code for which proteins are manufactured. Function of DNA is to direct the manufacture of proteins. Proteins: responsible for chemical, structural, and regulatory processes in the body. Composed of two nucleotides = a sugar molecule, a phosphate, and one of four bases. Form a change that is bonded. Twist to form a double helix. DNA Structure - Watson and Crick 1953. Nucleotides- composed of a sugar, a phosphate unit, and one of four dna bases. Double helix. Bases - adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine. Specific binding partners. A-T G-C. One strand is a complimentary stand for the other DNA and Inheritance - Preserves a message - repeating four base structure, vast number of distinct forms. Replicable - spread to offspring DNA Replication - Enzymes break bonds between bases in the DNA, leaving 2 strands of nucleotides, exposed bases attract unattached nucleotides that are constantly being manufactured. Attraction between bases occurs in a complementary way (dna bases form base pairs in a precise manner). Catalysts. Enzymes: proteins that initiate and direct chemical reactions in the body - 1. Enzymes break bonds 2. Exposed bases attract complementary nucleotides 3. Two parental nucleotide chains serve as models for replicate strands complementary – referring to the fact that the DNA bases form base pairs in a precise manner, Exons – DNA segments that are translated into amino acids. Introns – unexpressed segments Protein Synthesis - complex, three-dimensional molecules that function in through ability to bind to other molecules – hemoglobin, enzymes, hormones. Structural components of tissue. Ex collagen. Enzymes are proteins, regulate chemical reactions. Horomones are a class of proteins. Uses RNA - reads the instructions and actually assembles amino acids to form proteins. Constructed of amino acids – 20 total – 8 from food, 12 from cells. Combined in different amounts and sequences – produce 90000 different proteins. DNA = recipe for proteins . Codons – triplet of amino acids. Protein Synthesis - Occurs at ribosome’s in cytoplasm. Messenger RNA (mRNA) - passes through nucleus into cytoplasm. Single stranded, contains different type of sugar than DNA, contains uracil, not thymine. Transfer RNA (tRNA) – bind to specificamino acid and transports to ribosome during protein synthesis 1. Transcription - formation of mRNA, DNA code being copied 2. Translation- mRNA arrives at ribosome, message translated in groups of three mRNA bases (codons) Genes - Segment of DNA that specifies the sequence of amino acids in a particular proteins. Mutation: change in DNA. point mutation – change in a DNA base ex. AC GT. cell may not function properly Regulatory genes – make proteins that switch other genes on and off, influencing how those genes work. Homeobox genes – direct early segmentation of embryonic tissues, including those that give rise to the spine and thoracic muscles. Interact with other genes to determine the identity and characteristics of developing body segments. Chromosomes - Discrete strucrtures composed of DNa and protein. Found in nuclei of all cells. Humans = 46, chimps and gorillaz = 48. Autosomes – 22 pairs . Sex chromosomes – 1 pair. Offspring inherit one member from each chromosomal pair from mother and one from father. Cell Division - Grow and maintain health. Starts with replication.Diploid – full set of paired chromosomes. Haploid – single set of unpaired chromosomes. Homologous – chromosomes that go together in a pair. Mitosis – somatic cells, simple cell division, divides one time, produces two daughter cells exact copy. Meiosis – begins same way as mitosis, produce four new cells, not two – each cell has only half the number of chromosomes with their genes found in the parent - Human egg and sperm = 23 chromosomes. Body cells = 23 PAIRS = 46 chromosomes. Meiosis occurs in all sexually reproducing organisms. Evolutionary Significance of Meiosis - Increases genetic variation in populations. Random assortment of chromosomes – generates many different genetic combinations. Genetic variation essential for adaptation Problems with Meiosis = Fetal development. Nondisjunction – monsomy or trisomy Proteins – three dimensional molecules that serve a variety of functions through their ability to bind other molecules. Protein synthesis – the assembly of chains of amino acids into functional protein molecules. Directed by dna. Nucleotides – basic units of the dna molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate unit and one of four dna bases. Enzymes – specialized proteins that initiate and direct chemical reactions in the body ANTH 101 – Chapter 3 Gregor Mendel  1822-1884  During this time Darwin struggled with how natural selection actually worked? Intermediate forms?  Experiments in monastery gardens – garden pea plants.  Try to understand how various traits are inherited. Alleles – varieties of genes Genotype – combination of genes or alleles an individual has. Phenotypes – observable characteristics of the organism – physical appearance Homozygous – individuals with the two copies of the same allele. Ex. TT, tt Heterozygous – individuals with copies of two different alleles. Ex. Tt Locus – the position on the chromosome where a given gene occurs. The term is sometimes used interchangeably with gene. Mendel’s Experiments  7 different traits, 2 different forms. Ex. Height = tall vs. short  F0 generation= founding population (parent plants)  F1 generation = first generation, offspring of founding population  F2 generation = offspring of f1  F1 were all tall, produce f2 generation - ¾ offspring tall, ¼ short.  Different expressions of traits controlled by ‘particles’ (aka genes) offspring inherits on from each parent 1) Principle of segregation – observed characteristics of organism determined by two particles. One is inherited from the father and one from the mother. 2) Principle of Dominance and Recessiveness – recessive trait isn’t expressed in heterozygote’s, dominant traits prevent expression of recessive alleles.  Expression that was absent in F1 generation was still there but masked  Dominant trait(tall), recessive trait (short)  Different characters aren't always inherited together e.g. plant height and seed colour 3) Principle of independent assortment - Each of the two particles (genes) is equally likely to be transmitted when gametes formed - assort independently of each other Mendelian Inheritance in Humans  Mendelian trait = simple, discrete trait. Show more complex traits as well  18000 human characteristics are Mendelian traits E.g. “hitchhiker's thumb”  Most biochemical – not visible, genetic disorders. Meet the Fugates  Martin Fugate had methemoglobinemia, a condition that results in abnormal hemoglobin. Polygenic Inheritance  Polygenic – referring to traits that are influenced by genes at two or more loci. Ex. Stature, skin colour, eye colour.  Continuous traits – influenced by genes or environment at two or more loci ex. Height, skin colour, eye colour, hair colour.  Additive effect – each allele that codes for melanin production makes a contribution to increased amounts of melanin.  REMEMBER – mendelian traits are influenced by one gene, polygenic traits are influenced by more than one. Polygenic traits may be influenced by the environment. Mitochondrial Inheritance  Each mitochondrion contains several copies of a DNA molecule.  DNA is distinct from the DNA found within the nuclei.  Contains 40 genes that direct the conversion of energy within the cell.  Mutations cause genetic disorders that result from impaired energy conversion.  Animals of both sexes inherit all their mtDNA and all the traits from their mothers. Usually found in egg cytoplasm.  Meiosis and recombination don’t occur. New Frontiers Polymerase chain reaction – enables scientists to make thousands of copies of small samples of DNA that can then be analyzed. Has made it possible to evaluate tiny amounts of DNA. Human Genome Project – an international effort that has mapped the entire human genome. The Modern Synthesis  Julian Huxley  Evolution has two stages – production and redistribution of variation, natural selection acting on this variation.  Therefore, evolution = change in allele frequency from one generation to the next.  Population – group of individuals where mates usually found  Gene pool – total complement of genes shared by the reproductive members of a population. How is variation maintained? Mutation – change in the dna molecule point mutation – change in a base. Produce new alleles. Rare for evolution to occur solely due to mutation. Gene flow – exchange of genes between populations. Distributes variation, species evolve as a unit. Movements of populations, breeding with new populations upon arriving in a new area Ex. Finches. Genetic drift – evolutionary changes produced by random factors, result of low population size. Random factor causes changes in the frequency of alleles in a population. Founder effect, genetic bottle neck. Recombination – reshuffling of genes in offspring every generation as a result of sexual reproduction. Provides genetic combinations upon which natural selection can act on. Natural Selection and Variation  Natural selection acts on the variation produced ex. Sickle cell anemia.  Causes directional change – non-random change in allele frequencies caused by natural selection, change is directional because of the frequencies of alleles consistently increase or decrease Antigens – large molecules found on the surface of cells. Several different loci governing antigens on red and white blood cells are known. ANTH 101 – Adaptation Human Biocultural Evolution - Advantage for those who carry the sickle cell allele as they have a higher resistance to malaria and better reproductive success. Lactose intolerance – gene that codes for lactase production switches off in adolescence. Lactase persistence = continued production of lactase in adults. Population Genetics - The study of the frequency of alleles, genotypes and phenotypes in populations from a microevolutionary perspective. Gene pool – the total complement of genes shared by the reproductive members of a population. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium – provides a tool to establish whether allele frequencies in a population are indeed changing. 1. New variation – new alleles produced by mutation 2. Redistributed variation – gene flow or genetic drift 3. Selection of “advantageous” allele combinations that promote reproductive success – natural selection Adaptive significance of human variation - Stress – any factor that acts to disrupt homeostasis; more precisely, the body’s response to any factor that threatens its ability to maintain homeostasis. Homeostasis – condition of balance or stability within a biological system. Acclimatization – physiological response to environmental conditions, it can be short-term, long term or permanent. Partially influenced by genes. Adaptation = process of adjustment and change in an organism that enables it to survive and reproduce. Result of natural selection. Organisms have various ways of adjusting, can be strictly genetic vs. those that exhibit  Phenotypic plasticity = observable biological changes caused by the environment Human Adaptability - Outside environment = macroenvironment ex. tempreture . Artificial environment = microenvironment ex. heaters, staying inside. e.g. Temperature. Skin colour. Heat. Cold. Altitude Deeply-Pigmented Skin - Skin colour influenced by : hemoglobin, carotene, melanin  Melanin – granular substance produced by cells melanocytes located in the outer layer of the skin – acts as a sunscreen. All humans have the same amount of melanocytes, its the amount and size of granules that vary. What causes deeply pigmented skin in the tropics?  1. People with darker pigmented skin less susceptible to skin cancers and sunburn – 1. Early humans lived in the tropics 2. Early humans spent most of their time outside 3. No clothing or sunscreen  SO: UV radiation selected for maximum levels of melanin in early hominins.  BUT cancers usually occur after reproduction.  2. Reduce chances of severe sunburn – dangerous infants, interfere with ability to sweat.  3. Protect against the degradation of folate – b vitamin not stored in the body, insuffient levels in pregnant women are associated with many infant disorders ex. Spinal bifida.  Neural tube – in early embryonic development, the anatomical structure that develops to form the brain and spinal cord. Less-pigmented Places -Northern latitudes – colder temperatures, hominins experienced different types of pressures, cloudy skies.  1. Selective pressure for dark skin relaxed  2. Vitamin D hypothesis – depigmentation related to need for vitamin D, synthesised by uv light. Necessary for calcium regulation. Problems vitamin d definency – ex. Rickets The Thermal Environment -Normal human body temperature is approx. 98.6 degrees f. Human beings must adapt to temperature extremes. Each species has a different tolerances for environmental temperatures. Responses to Heat -- Hot-dry environments – little natural shade, limited food and water, cold temperatures at night, ancestral hominins likely lived in hot-day conditions. Night can get quite cold. Evidence suggests that the earliest hominins evolved in the warm-to-hot savannas of east Africa. Increased exposure to the skin enhances the cooling effects. We don’t know where in history where we began to lose our hair but it represents a species wide adaptation. Up to 3 litres of water can be lost by a human engaged in heavy work in high heat. Biological Responses to Hot-Dry environment - Bergman’s rule – body mass is lower in hot-dry areas. Greater in colder climates – as mass increases, amount of surface area exposed decreases proportionally. Heat is lost at the surface, increase mass will allow for a greater heat retention. Hot climates you want to reduce mass, increase surface area to expel heat. Allen’s rule – colder climates = shorter appendages and increased mass to surface area. Longer appendages increase body surface area and more adaptive for warmer climates. Vascular Responses – Vasodilation – expansion of blood vessels, permitting increased flow to the skin. Capillaries open so blood can travel easier. Heat transferred from skins surface to the air. Flushing or increased redness. Also occurs from drugs or drinking. Sweating – eccrine sweat glands in humans. Other animals: apocrine sweat glands. Evaporative cooling. Cultural Adaptations to Hot-Dry Conditions - Activity scheduling, Housing, Clothing, Shading Responses to Heat - Warm-humid environments – solar radiative heat less during the day and night – reduced variation in dirnural temperatures. Similar to hot-dry environments – vasodilatation, sweating. BUT evaporation of sweat slower, so reduced rate of cooling. SO body form may have more important role. Smallest average body size found here. Limited cultural and behavioural adaptations, clothing minimal, housing promote air circulation. Responses to Cold -Insulative adaptations – body size and form (Bergman’s and Allen’s rule). Subcutaneous Fat – provides insulation to the body, studies have shown that there is less heat loss in these people. Vasoconstriction – narrowing of superficial blood vessels to prevent losing heat. Short term responses that constricts heat loss and conserves energy. If temperatures fall below freezing it can result in frostbite or worse. Behavioural modifications – increased activity, wearing warmer clothing, increased food consumption, curling up in a ball. Metabolic Adaptations – involuntary muscular activity – shivering. Voluntary muscular activity. Costly adaptation – uses a lot of energy, need to intake more nutrients when living in the cold to provide energy for these adaptations. Thick clothing ex. Inuit, bedding, housing ex. Igloo, fire High Altitude - Himalayas, Andes and Rocky Mountains. Multiple stressors at high altitudes – cold, aridity, high UV level, low humidity, wind, reduced nutritional base and rough terrain. Hypoxia – reduction in available oxygen due to reduced barometric pressure, difficult to adapt behaviourally, responses overwhelmingly biological. Reproduction is adversely affected due to increased infant mortality rates, miscarriage, low birth weights, premature birth. Infant deaths are twice as common above 8200 feet. Preeclampsia – severe elevation of blood pressure in pregnant women. Tibetan highlanders possess a mutation in a gene involved in red blood cell production, inhibits the increased red blood cell production. Andes people do not have this mutation. Biological Adaptation to Hypoxia - Increased oxygen transport to tissues. Natives – acclimatize during growth and development (permanent). Non-natives – acclimatize within 1—2 days (no permanent) Adaptations include – increased ventilation rate, increased heart rate, increased production of Challenges face in high altitudes - 1. Acute mountain sickness -2. Edema – abnormal accumulation of fluid, results in swelling – pulmonary (oxygen transport to the lung cannot happen because of fluid), cerebral (fluid enters brain tissue) - 3.Subacute infantile mountain sickness – infants have lower oxygen levels in blood. - 4. Chronic Mountain sickness – characterized by the loss of climatization. Infectious Disease. Influences the frequency of alleles that affect the immune response.  Factors such as architectural styles, subsistence techniques, exposure to domesticated animals, and religious practices affect how infectious disease develops and persists between populations.  Vectors – agents that transmit disease from one carrier to another. Ex. Mosquitoes are vectors for malaria.  Endemic – continuously present in a population.  Zoonotic – a disease thats transmitted to humans through contact with nonhuman animals. Ex. Tuberculosis  95% of all HIV infected people live in developing countries.  Hiv is a slow virus that persists in the persons body for several years until the onset of severe illness. Asymptomatic period is call a ‘latency period’ in the US the period is on average 11 years.  Pathogens – any agents especially microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria or fungi that infect a host and cause disease.  A person develops AIDS from HIV when a persons T cell count to a level indicationg that immunity has been suppressed and when symptoms of opportunistic infections appear.  Some individuals possess a natural immunity or resistance to HIV.  Virulence – a measure of the severity of an infectious disease The Continuing Impact of Infectious Disease  The flu viruses that infect humans are initially acquired through contact with domestic pigs and fowl. ANTH 101 – Chapter 4 Human Variation – weight, height, hair colour, eye colour, skin colour, food preference Historical Views of Human Variation  Skin colour, e.g. Egyptians – 1350 B.C skin colour was the most frequent classification of humans. Red for Egyptians, yellow for people to the east, white for those to the north, and black for su
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