Saw himself as a social scientists - begin to have a difference between social sciences and science. Societies evolve in a single direction toward complexity, progress, and civilization. All humans are bestowed with innate rational faculties. Continuously improving their societies through progress toward civilization . Given enough time, human cultures will progress to civilization. Savagery - groups who haven"t yet developed farming. Barbarism - farmers, settled living in one place, without a well developed writing system/a writing system that isn"t commonly used. Barbarians mean someone who does not speak greek but makes sounds such as bar, bar, bar . Civilization - settled, farmers, complex societies, well developed written language, all the complexities of civilized life. Ideas embraced by racial mindset: if it is the goal that every culture will reach civilization, then we are doing a favour by taking away their older ways of living and force them to be civilized. Primarily studied the native people of north america.