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Lecture

ANTH 101 March 19 Lecture.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTH 100
Professor
Keriann Mc Googan

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Domestication ­ state of interdependence between humans and selected plants or animals ­ can lead to permanent genetic change from artificial selection Seeing plants ­ farmers relied on local plants ­ Scientific understanding comes from archaebotanical research o analysis of interpretation of ancient plant remains that ave been uncovered  in the archaeological record ­ plant macrofossils  ▯big seed or stem o preservation  ▯always dry, wet, or frozen (to slow down decomposition of  the plant); charred o important archaeological evidence  ▯tells us what kinds of plants there  were, how they were using them, and what was harvested from the plants Microbotanical evidence: Pollen ­ Small; microscopic grains of male gametes of pollen­producing plants ­ Pollen grains are abundant and grains of pollens are taxonomically distinctive  from one another of different plant species to determine species of plants ­ Outer shell of each grain is touch and allows them to be better preserved,  especially during times of disturbance ­ Problem: open a d exposed sites break down pollen grains and preservation is  dependent among soil acidity, moisture, wind exposure, etc Microbotanical: Phytoliths ­ microscopic silicus structure formed in the cells of many plants ­ phytoliths found on different parts of plans are very different ­ stronger chance of being recovered and identified Microbotanical: Starch Grains ­ subcellular structures that form in all plant parts ­ classified by family or genus, so they give us a good idea of what kinds of species  were present ­ mostly found in seeds and tubours Recognizing Domesticated Plants ­ seed size  ­ seed coat thickness  ▯thick seed coat is an advantageous to keep seed intact o contrast to human controlled environment  ▯thicker seed coated plants  sprout later, which is disadvantageous ­ seed dispersal mechanisms and terminal clusters  ▯easily detached seeds can  spread by wind and germinate faster  ▯can be problematic for human­controlled  environments as seeds will fall to the ground and harvesting is more inefficient o strong adhesion is more beneficial  ▯want tight clusters/bundles at the end  of plants because it’s easier to harvest them ­ geographic distribution  ▯humans dispersing into new areas being plants with  them o finding a plant species that doesn’t naturally belong in an area indicates  that it is domesticated Domestication of Animals ­ most domesticated as a source of food ­ not until 4 kya that animals were domesticated for other purposes (i.e. wool, milk,  pulling machinery) ­ domestication is a process rather than an event  ▯occurred over a long period of  time Species Most Likely to be Domesticated ­ unlikely to flee ­ live in social groups ­ not strongly territori
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