Fallacies: humans can be grouped into non-overlapping categories based on small subsets of, race informs us of/on other human traits (ex: intelligence, races are ancient and represent separation between groups that occurred a very long phenotype time ago. Linnaeus (1758) 4 races: european, asian, african, amerindian. Blumenbach (1781) 5 races: caucasian, mongoloid, malay, ethiopian, american. Garn (1965) 9 races: amerindian, polynesian, micronesian, australian, asiatic, indian, *local races defined as breeding populations (ex: hindu)* Subspecies a: long beak, yellow breast, short tail, east. Complicated : skin color, blood protein, body proportions, nose shape, skin color gives you one series of groups, blood type . Humans have a tendency to place things in categories. (ex: what"s edible, Who fits in what box is constructed by society. This doesn"t mean that races aren"t real , but they are not biologically real. Biological determinism biological traits associated with behavioral traits (e. g. , intelligence, morality) Eugenics inferior genes should be bred out.