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cultural behaviours

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BIOL 101
Christine Dupont

531culture set of behaviours shared by members of a population transmitted through learningwhen generations do not overlap parental guidance is not factor is acquisition of behaviourstereotypic performed almost exactly the same way each time ex spider spinning webostereotypic behaviour is often speciesspecific individuals of given species perform it in same wayethology the study of animal behaviour from an evolutionary perspectiveoaddresses behaviour patters how and when to perform themoproximate mechanisms that underlie behaviour neuronal hormonal anatomicaloultimate causes of behaviour selection pressure that shaped evolutionmost behaviours result from interactions btwn inherited anatomical and physiological mechanisms and the ability to modify behaviour as a result of experiencemany animals behaviour is unlearned and highly stereotypic532stereotypic behaviour tells biologists little about genes and experience in developmentanimal may fail to perform behaviour if the environmental conditions needed to stimulate it are absent may perform behaviour if they imitate the same teachergenes do NOT encode behaviours gene products enzymes set in motion a series of geneenvironment interactions that underlie development of proximate mechanisms that enable individuals to make certain behavioural responsesexperiments help distinguish btwn genetic and environmental influencesdeprivation experiment rears a young animal so its deprived of all experience relevant to behaviour if it exhibits behaviour it can be developed without learningoheredity underlies foodstoring behaviour of tree squirrel species but behaviour was expressed only when environment provided situations that stimulated behaviourgenetic experiments alters genomes by ointerbreeding closely related speciesselective breeding means of genetic manipulating used to select for both anatomical traits and behaviours approach is applied and not theoretical but does provide insight about effect genes have on behaviourocomparing individuals that differ in few genesinterbreedingwhen Lorenz crossbred ducks hybrid offspring had some elements of each parents courtship display in new combinations Hybrids exhibited display elements characteristic of other species motor patterns of courtship displays are inherited sexual selection has shaped these genetically determined behavioursoby knocking outinserting gene sequencesfosB is involved in stimulating neural changes in hypothalamus of mothers brain possibly odor clues upon initial inspection of pups It plays a part in motivating mother to retrieve and care for pups neural changes do not occur if fosB gene is inactivatedwithout role models and opportunities for learning individuals might fail to acquire appropriate behaviour if genes didnt exert strong influences on development of behaviourinherited behaviour is also adaptive when mistakes are costly or dangerouspatterns used to avoid predators is adaptive
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