BIOL110 Lecture Notes - Hox Gene, Aortic Arch, Trochlear Nerve

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30 Jan 2013
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Embryology: Head and Neck
Begins at start of fourth week
Neural crest (cells at junction between surface ectoderm and neural plate) deposits in
cranial region as neural folds form
mesenchyme of head: paraxial mesoderm (somitomeres and somites) + neural
while in neural folds, neural crest cells receive precise info (via HOX gene
code) as to where to go after they leavepopulate very specific region of
some neural crest cells (along rhombomere 3 and 5), receive instructions from
MSX-2 genes to commit suicide to produce gaps to prevent mixing of neural
crest cell population
free gaps produce clefts between the upper arches = branchial grooves or
branchial clefts
neural crest = bones of face and anterior skull
mesoderm: posterior bones and base of skull
laryngeal cartilages in neck: lateral plate mesoderm
mesoderm from primitive streak accumulates on both sides of midline; head region: not
completely segmentedsomitomeres
seven somitomeres
form from cranial to caudal sequence
from region of prosencephalon to occipital region
each one associated with specific portion of cranial neural plate; forebrain,
midbrain and hindbrain presaged by one or more somitomeres
osomitomeres tell neural tube segment what to become
somitomeres set up initial organization of brain and form all voluntary muscle of
head and neck
scaffold or patterning of muscles determined by connective tissue of head a neck
(neural crest)
somitomere primitive brain subdivision cranial nerve
craniofacial muscle
Origin Craniofacial muscles Innvervation
Somitomere 1,2 Sup., med., ventral recti CN III
Somitomere 3 Sup. Oblique CN IV
Somitomere 4 Jaw-closing mm. CN V
Somitomere 5 Lat. Rectus CN VI
Somitomere 6 Jaw-opening mm.
Other 2nd arch mm.
Somitomere 7 Stylopharyngeus CN IX
Somites 1,2 Intrinsic laryngeals CN X
Somites 2-5 Tongue mm. CN XII
(Note: Raymond has replaced a table image with equivalent text)
hindbrain undergoes further segmentation: rhombomeres; each has unique genetic
pharyngeal (branchial, visceral) arches (six arches, #5 is degenerate)
lateral swellings on either side of head
apparent during 5th week
result of local proliferation of neural crest cell populations as they take
made up of mesenchyme
delineated from each other by pharyngeal grooves, covered by ectoderm
(external) and by pharyngeal pouches, lined by endoderm (internal)
closing membranes (ectoderm/endoderm contact points) seal off archesno
each arch has unique genetic identityspecific cartilages and bones
with connective tissue in place, somitomeres and occipital somites can
organize the formation of the voluntary musculature associate with their
respective connective tissues
Summary of info, thus far:
each segment of neural tube has unique genetic identity (HOX)carried into
pharyngeal arches through neural crest cellssome cells die to for grooves
coordinate brain and facial development
Aortic arch arteries
pharyngeal arches initially serve as conduits for aortic arch arteries
oarteries migrate thru path of least resistance: mesenchyme
early in embryogenesis, pattern of arterial supply is symmetrical, but each pair of
arch arteries has different fates; some arteries grow, some degenerate
(Note: Raymond has replaced a table image with equivalent text below)
Aortic arch
1st Maxillary a.
2nd Stapedius a.
3rd Carotid a.
4th Proximal subclavian a. (right), aortic arch (left)
5th None
6th Pulmonary a.
Cranial Nerve
each pharyngeal arch associated with specific cranial nerve
CN emerge from specific regions of brain and supply pharyngeal arch with neural
crest that came from same region (same HOX code)
To know which arch a muscle came from, know the CN
(Raymond has removed a table image from the original document)
Pharyngeal pouchesglands/organs
5 pairs
first pouch
oauditory tube
ocomes in contact with epithelial lining of first pharyngeal cleftfuture
odistal portiontympanic cavity (lining will become eardrum)
oproximal portionauditory tube
second pouch
oforms buds that penetrate surrounding mesenchyme
opalatine tonsil
ostructure infiltrated by lymphatic tissue
third pouch
oforms thymus and inferior parathyroid glands
oas thymus descends into thoracic region, pulls inferior parathyroid glands
with it
oinferior parathyroid glands become embedded into gland
fourth pouch
osuperior parathyroid glands
oas thyroid gland moves caudally, glands attach to dorsal surface
fifth pouch
outlimobranchial body
oregulates calcium levels in blood
oembedded into thyroid gland when pulled caudally
pharyngeal clefts/grooves
initially, four clefts exist
only one gives rise to definite structure
1st pharyngeal cleft penetrates underlying mesenchyme and forms EAM
obottom of EAM forms lateral aspect of tympanic cavity
2nd cleft
oundergoes active proliferation and overlaps remaining clefts
omerges with ectoderm of lower neckremaining cleft have no contact
with outside