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Biol 120 notes - Lecture 1.pdf

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University of Waterloo
BIOL 120
Simon Chuong

Biol 120: Plant Biology 2013-04-14 8:10 PM Lecture 1 Summary Intro • all living organisms are made up of one or more cells. • cells are typically 1-300µm in diameter/length ( 1um =1000mm). • cells were discovered by Robert Hook (1635-1703) • Hooke used the term “cell” because the tiny compartments he saw in the slice of bark – reminding him of monk cells • “cell” latin for cellula, meaning “small room”. Microscopes • 1km-200mm = unaided eye • 100mm-50µm = light microscope • 50µm-1nm = electron microscope o scanning electron microscope o o Transmission Electron Microscope o History • Plants are composed of cells o mid-1800, general theory emerged about cells o 1838, German botanist Matthias Schleiden concluded plant parts are composed of cells o 1839, Theodor Schwan agreed animals were also composed of cells • Cell Theory: 1. Organisms are made of one or more cells 2. Cells are the basic unit of structure for all organisms 3. Cells arise only from existing cells. Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote • First forms of life on earth were prokaryotes (3.5bybp) • Prokaryotes were only living life form for 1.4byrs • Eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotes • Eukaryotes are generally more complex and larger o prokaryote size is ~0.2-10µm o eukaryote size is ~5-300µm • Prokaryotes – latin for “before the nucleus” • Eukaryotes – latin for “true nucleus” • Prokaryotes DO NOT have membrane bound organelles o cell membrane controls movement of water, gases, and molecules. Endosymbiotic Theory: Developed by Lynn Margulis, 1970’s • postulates that several key organelles of eukaryotes originated
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