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Lecture 4

Biol 120 - Lecture 4 Summary.pdf

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 120
Professor
Simon Chuong
Semester
Winter

Description
Biol 120: Plant Biology   Lecture 4 Summary Ferns and Fern Allies – Seedless Vascular Plants. • The simplest of vascular plants – evolved alongside bryophytes ~ 450-700mybp. • Seedless Vascular Plants: vascular plants (plants with xylem and phloem) that produce neither flowers nor seeds, and are hence called vascular cryptogams. Instead, they reproduce and disperse only via spores. • vascular tissue: the tissue in higher plants that constitutes the vascular system, consisting of phloem and xylem, by which water and nutrients are conducted throughout the plant. • Sperm of ferns have tail-like structures and swim through water to reach the egg – Therefore they are WATER DEPENDENT for reproduction. • Lignin: a complex organic polymer composed of chains of glucose molecules, deposited in the cell walls of many plants (incl. SVP), making them rigid and woody. o Lignins allowed for an increase in size and height • SVP account for only 5% of living plant species today. Phyla • Psilotophyta – whisk ferns • Sphenophyta – horsetails • Pterophyta – Ferns • Lycopodium – club mosses; ancestors of extinct Zosterophylls • Isoetes - Quillworts Life Cycle • Sporophyte is dominant • Gametophyte is significantly reduced in size and short-lived • Sporophyte is independent at maturity • MOST Sporophytes are homosporous (releasing one type of spore) • Gametophytes can be bisexual or unisexual • Heterosporous Sporophyte have megasporangia with megaspores (large, becomes female gametop
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