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BIOL 120 (73)
Lecture 4

Lecture 4 Seedless Vascular Plants

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BIOL 120
Simon Chuong

Lecture 4 Notes Algae Solutions : - Phaeocystis: has high concentration of compounds that absorb ultraviolet light: PROTECTS the cell from damaged caused by UV irradiation. Gravity: - Strengths cell wall: by increasing lignin Seedless Vascular Plants (SVPS) - Lignins: (Bryophytes DO NOT have lignin • STRENGTHENS cell wall ( by replacing water and coating ) • Or ENCRUSTING the cellulose - Cellulose: principle building block of plants cell walls ( chains of glucose molecules) - Allows for INCREASE in SIZE and HEIGHT - In new Zealand: new fern found - EVOLUTION : paleobotanists (recovering plant from geological etc) not certain how SVPS evolved b/c fossil record = incomplete - Have a vascular system of • phloem (tissue that moves sugars and other organic nutrients from leaves to rest of the plants) • xylem : tissue that brings water and mineral nutrients from roots to rest of the plant - NO seeds/ flowers - Characteristic : • vascular tissue and waxy epidermis  Evolved from fresh water algae: over million of years - DOMINATED: (landscape) around 350 mya persisted as dominate plants for about 100 mya - Still needs WATER for fertilization - Today are about 5% living plant species Hypothesis for Seedless Vascular Plants - 450 mya: three extinct phyla appeared in fossil records - ALL had branching • Rhyniophytes PHOTOSYNTHETIC • Zosterophylls: ancestors to Phylum Lycophyta (Club STEMS without roots OR Mosses) Lycopodium leaves Order Isoetales: Quillworts , Order Selaginellales : Spike - From ancestral green Mosses algae of class Charophyceae • Trimerophytes : ancestors to 3 of 4 living phyla of SDV Phylum : Phylum Psilotophyta, Whisk ferns Phylum Sphenophyta: Horsetails Phylum Pterophta Ferns ( largest group of SVPS) Psilophyon dawsonii - Life Cycles: - Alternation of generations (all plants) - Sporophyte = DOMINANT - Gametophyte: reduced in physical sie - Sporophyte and gametophyte are INDEPENDET at maturity ( unlike bryophytes and seed plants) - Homosporous: produce only ONE type of spore (most SVPS) - Gametophyte: male,female, or bisexual • Short lived, small - Hetersporous : produce TWO types of spores : • Megaspores :
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