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Lecture 12

BIOL 130 Lecture 12: Unit 2c

3 Pages

Course Code
BIOL 130
Heidi Engelhardt

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Unit 2c: Macromolecules Nucleic acids ATP is a nucleotide, but it is also a nucleoside Deoxy ribo nucleic acid (DNA) triphosphate o Sequence of subunits in DNA polymer directs RNA synthesis Functions of nucleotides Ribo nucleic acid (RNA) Monomeric units of RNA and DNA o RNA directs ordering of AAs in a peptide chain Important signal molecules within cells Info stored as DNA sequences enables living orgs to pass o Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) heredity information Important agents in energy transfer reactions Also allows each cell to pass on heredity into to the next o Cleave off phosphate group to release stored gen of cells energy ATP => ADP + P i energy Monomers od nucleic acids NTP => NDP + P+ienergy Deoxyribo nucleotides (to build DNA): Act as coenzyme cofactors organic nonprotein molec o Phosphate + Deoxyribose + Base (A, G, C, T) required for enzyme function o dAMP, dCDP, dGTP, ect (dNTP) o Usually adenine containing nucleotides Ribo nucleotides (to build RNA) combined with B vitamins o Phosphate + ribose + Base (A, G, C, U) E.g. Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide o AMP, UDP, GTP etc (rNTP) (NAD), Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD) Nucleic acids are polymers Nucleotides link via Condensation Nucleic acids are linear (unbranced) polymers of nucleotides reactions Each nucleotide consists of three parts Nucleotides are joined by a o Nitrogenous base phosphodiester linkage bw 5c and o A 5carbon pentose sugar 3c to form nucleic acids o A phosphate 5 beginning of chain. Always built 5 to 3 Components of nucleotides 3 end where new bases can be Nitrogenous bases added o Pyrimidine 1 ring (longer word) Does not occur spontaneously Uracil Cytosine Structural diff bw DNA and RNA Thymine In RNA 2 has OH and H o Purine 2 rings (shorter word) In DNA 2 has H and H Adenine Guanine Polymerization reactions are endergonic Sugars Making the new phosphodiester bonds from 2 o 5 carbon sugar nucleotides requires input of energy Polymerization of bases occurs bc energy level of free nucleotides is first raised by the addition of 2 phosphate groups o Creation of nucleoside triphosphates (activated nucleotides) NTP => NDP + P+ienergy H Phosphate o dNTPs = deoxyribo Nucleoside TriPhosphates o Normally joined to the carbon 5 hydroxyl of the activated building blocks for DNA ribose or deoxyribose sugar o Mono, di, tri phosphates are common o Phosphate makes a nucleotide negatively charged Nucleotide vs. nucleoside Ribose + base = nucleoside Ribose + base + phosphate = nucleotide
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