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Lecture 10

BIOL 130 Lecture 10: Unit 2e

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BIOL 130
Heidi Engelhardt

Unit 2e: Macromolecules Lipids o steroids hormones group of carboncontaining compounds that are largely nonpolar hydrophobic o significant proportion of a given lipid molecule is hydrocarbon the only macromolecule that is not a polymer Major groups of lipids in cells: fats oils energy storage weight for weight contain 6x as much energy as glucose o fats (Triacylglycerols, Triglycerides) fatty acid (carboxylic acid with long hydrocarbon tail) phospholipids o major component of biological membranes permeability barrier o two closely apposed sheets of lipids, studded with proteins o lipids serve as permeability barrier o proteins perform most of the functions o Unsaturated fats Cis H on same side o carbohydrates (sugars) attached to protein and Trans H on opposite side lipids in a nonrandom manner o composition varies with: type of organism (prokaryote vs animal vs plant vs ) type of cell within organism (muscle, liver, Sterols sperm, egg, ) o cholesterol membrane component type of membrane within cell (plasma membrane, Golgi, ER) inner versus outer layer different patches or domains within a particular membrane o Phospholipids are Amphipathic Their most important feature with respect to biology Amphipathic = both hydrophilic and phobic ends in a molecule o Lipid bilayers form spontaneously
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