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Lecture 11

BIOL 130 Lecture 11: Unit 2d

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University of Waterloo
BIOL 130
Heidi Engelhardt

Unit 2d: Macromolecules – Carbohydrates Formation of Ring structures: eg glucose • Group of melecules tht contain C, H, O in a 1:2:1 ratio, • C1 is anomeric carbon general formula (CH 2) n • carbonyl group converted to hydroxyl o Eg glucose 6 H12 6 but sucrose is 12H22 11 • hydroxyl can be below plane of molecule (same as • types: hydroxyl on C2) or above (opposite to –OH on C2), form o mono saccharides - simple sugars two different ANOMERS ▪ monomer = monosaccharide ▪ dimer = disaccharide ▪ trimer = trisaccharide …. oligosaccharide ▪ oligo saccharides - (oligo = few) small chains ▪ attached to proteins – glycoproteins – gly means sweet added sugar ▪ attached to lipids  glycolipids – lipids sweet fat o poly saccharides  very long sugar chains Formation of disaccharides by condensation reactions Typical structural features of sugar monomers • monomers are linked when C1 of one monosaccharide • carbonyl group (either ketone or aldehyde) binds to a C on another – often C4 • lots of -OH groups • geometry of bond different depending on • vary in length of C skeleton (C3, C5, C6, ….) triose, o whether OH group of C1 is in α or β position pentose, hexose o which C of other sugar is involved in linkage • Isomeric forms (glucose, fructose, galactose) o Identical chem groups arranged diff • Monosacharides often form rings in solution Isomers – same molecular formula, diff arrangements Polymerization to build polysaccharides • structural isomer – identical groups but bonded to different carbons • stereo (optical) isomer – identical groups bonded to same carbons but in different orientations • sixteen different hexose structures possible, all with formula C H6O12 6 • both are storage forms for energy • starch – plants; glycogen – animals • both consist of α-glucose monomers linked by α-1,4 bonds • both coil into a helix (due to geometry of linkages) • starch is mixture of unbranched amylose (α-1,4 ) and branched amylopectin (α-1,4 and α-1,6 ) • Glycogen is highly branched (α-1,4 and α-1,6) Structural polysaccharides in plants: Cellulose • polymer of β-glucose, joined by β-1,4 linkages Does arrangement of OH grou
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