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Lecture 8

BIOL 130 Lecture 8: Unit 9 Mitosis, Meiosis, Cell division

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University of Waterloo
BIOL 130
Heidi Engelhardt

Unit 9: Mitosis, Meiosis, Cell cycle Chromosomes visible in cells abt to divide For single cells (bacteria, yeast, protist) mitosis is In chromosomal form for a very short their reproductive mechanism, cloning themselves period Metazoans (multicellular organisms that have Chromatin invisible by light microscopy organs and tissues) many cell divisions required to Hypertonic lysis spew their DNA out generate new organism from fertilized egg you can pull it out like DNA snot Certain features of cell division Karyotype (Human) Must replicate identical DNA Trick cell into a division cycle and stop it when they Replicated DNA must be accurately segregated to form condensed chromosomes daughter cells Get cells into stage where chromosomes lined up in Most cells duplicate other macromolecules, the middle with spindle fibres about to pull the organelles and double in size before they divide chromosomes apart Bacteria cell division is not called mitosis o Add spindle poison toxin to inactivate the spindle fibres by breaking up the tubulin Mitosis vs. Meiosis monomers Mitosis Break cell open arrange them from largest to o Cells cloning themselves, creating genetically smallest and take pictures identical daughter cells from parent cell o Accompanied by cytokinesis division of the Homologous chromosomes vs. sister chromatids cytoplasm in the 2 daughter cells Homologous is a pair one from each parent o Early cleavage divisions as a zygote are When each of the pair replicate from sister different from those that occur in the body chromatids joined by centromeres but they now the cell is much bigger when a zygote are also joined all along the chromosome o If dividing in an uncontrolled way cancer o Control of the ability of cell divisions in Cell cycle epithelial cell determines cancer Cell is alternating bw interphase and M phase Meiosis Interphase 3 subdivisions o Doubling and splitting twice to create 4 haploid o Much longer than M phase cells tht are not genetically identical creates 90 of a ploriferating cells time genetic diversity Grows by prod proteins, organelles, copies o Division of gen material to prod daughter cells DNA, preps for cell division with half the hereditary material found in Intestinal epithelial cell in interphase for 23 parent cell hours and in M phase for 1 hour o Involved only in the prod of gametes (eggs, o G1 (Gap1) doing cells job longest phase sperm) Normal function exhibiting its personality o Basis of sexual reproduction and gen Secreting enzymes ect. whatever the purpose inheritance of the cell is Most of its growth Eukaryotic Chromosomes o S synthesis Multiple linear chromosomes housed in nucleus When DNA is replicated 2 copies of each essential to survival Chromosomes attached to centromeres, still Highly variable in number fully extended o Most eukaryotes have 1050 chromosomes No chromosome condensation o G2 completion of prep for mitosis o Human 2n = 46 o Haploid = 23 Serious preparing for mitosis 23 haploid = 46 chromosomes Chromosomes start to condense Complex packaging of DNA Spindle apparatus form o Histone proteins exact amount of turns around the protein known, the linker gap length known o Very condense DNA is abt 5cm long
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