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BIOL 130 (308)

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BIOL 130
Niels C Bols

Describe how the protonmotive force is set up and how interfering with the protonmotive force was the focus of an early unsuccessful diet pillThere are 2 components to the proton gradient which is built across the inner mitochondrial membrane during the electron transport chain There is the pH gradient a chemical gradient and a voltage gradient an electrical gradient As a result this is an electrochemical gradient The protonmotive force is the expression of energy present in the electrochemical gradient This value is approximately 220 millivolts The voltage component is around 80 and the pH component is around 20 The inner mitochondrial membrane must be maintained so that it is highly impermeable to H However 24dinitrophenol DNP uncouples the ETC from ATP formation It makes the inner mitochondrial membrane permeable to H Protons would travel across the inner mitochondrial membrane but no ATP would be produced DNP was used in the 1920s as a diet pill It collapses the protonmotive force and instead of producing ATP the energy is lost as heat To try and maintain normal ATP levels cells start to burn fat However due to deaths the drug was no longer used What mechanisms do professional phagocytes have to kill bacteria and how do some bacteria get around themPhagocytosis is basically cell eating Some cells are specialized in the uptake of larger particles from the environment into the cell itself In the cell the particle is transported via a phagosome to a lys
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