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BIO 130-Introduction to the Cells .docx

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University of Waterloo
BIOL 130
Heidi Engelhardt

BIO 130- Unit One Introduction to the Cell  There are 2 classes of cells a) Prokaryotes – no-membrane bound organelles, no nucleus b) Eukaryotes – membrane-bound organelles; has nucleus, has endomembrane system  Robert Hooke invented the 1 microscope  He looked at slices of cork (cellula)  Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek improved microscope‟s lenses o Worked w/ glass o Improved the lens quality to enable a magnification of approx. 300x o 1 to observe single-celled organisms (animalcules) in a variety of places: a) Protists in pond water b) Bacteria from own mouth c) Blood cells d) Banded pattern in muscle cells e) Sperm o Known as the “father of microbiology”  Due to limited resolving power and an emphasis on description rather than explanation caused a stall of progress  In 1830s the compound microscope was invented, it improved magnification & resolution (enabled to see microscopic materials under 1 μm  Robert Brown discovered plant cells contained a round structure – the nucleus  Matthias Schleiden discovered plant tissue are made up of cells  Theodor Schwann observed there were structural similarities b/w plants & animals o Formulated “cell theory”  Cell theory o All organisms consist of 1+ cells o The cell is the basic unit of structure in all organisms o All cells arise from preexisting cells  Scientific Method & Facts o An attempt to state our best current understanding based on observations & experiments o Valid only until revised/replaced by a better understanding o Based on „more‟ careful observations/ „more‟ discriminating experiments  What the Scientific Method is o Making observations o Use of inductive reasoning to develop hypothesis o Predictions made based on hypothesis o Further investigations made through controlled experiments to test validity of hypothesis o Interpretation of result to reason whether it supports hypothesis  What a Theory is o A hypothesis that‟s been tested critically under many different condition, different investigators, variety of different investigation approaches used o When a hypothesis is regarded as a theory, its already accepted by most scientists o It‟s the solid ground of science – evolution, germ theory, cell theory etc…  Basic properties of cells o They‟re highly complex & organized o Atomsmoleculesmacromoleculesorganellesetc… o Uses the same genetic program – central dogma (DNARNAProtein) o Transcription occurs in nucleus o Translation occurs in cytoplasm o Capability to reproduce – replication of genetic material initiates this process o Acquire & use energy & carry out a variety of chemical reactions o Has many processes that are highly conserved @ molecular level - membrane structure, genetic coding, ATP synthesizing enzymes, actin filaments, eukaryotic flagella o Engages in numerous mechanical activities – transportation of materials within the cell, assembly/disassembly of structures, mobility o Response to environmental signals – stimuli, hormones, growth factors o Homeostasis – self-regulation  Classes of cells 1) Prokaryotes (no nucleus) – eubacteria, archaebacteria  No membrane-bound nucleus  Very small  DNA are single circular strand  There‟s a cell wall on plasma membrane (in most)  Most diverse cell group – spherical cells (streptococcus) , rod-shape cells (e-coli) , spiral cells (treponema pallidum) 2) Eukaryote (true nucleus) – protists, fungi, plants, animals  Membrane-bound nucleus  DNA are multiple, linear strands of DNA packed w/I histones  Organelles allows specialized compartments – mitochondria(all), chloroplasts(plants)  Cytoskeleton is involved in transportation b/w compartments  Larger size than prok
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