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Unit 10 and 11 Overview.docx

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BIOL 130
Heidi Engelhardt

BIOL 130 Unit 10/11 – Cells in their Social Context  Cytoskeleton – consisting of Microtubules, Intermediate Filaments, Microfilaments o A network of fibres forming ‘scaffolding’ within the cytoplasm o Determines cell shape, position of organelles o Allows movement of organelles/component within cells  Coordinates movement of chromosomes during mitosis o Allows movement of the cells themselves (‘motility’) – forms flagella, cilia, lamellipodia o Cytoskeleton is dynamic > constantly being reorganized (serves as both ‘bones’ and ‘muscles’ of the cell)  Classes of Intermediate Filaments o Consist of many different proteins o Cytoplasmic = Keratins in the epithelial, Vimentin & Vimentin- related in connective tissue, muscle cells, and neuroglial cells, neurofilaments in nerve cells, o Nuclear = nuclear lamins in all animal cells  Keratins – the most diverse class of intermediate filaments! o Every type of epithelium in the body has its own mixture of keratin protein (gut lining, skin, tongue, cornea) o Skin produces many types of keratin  Secreted filaments can form fingernails, hair, hooves, horns  Microtubules o Hollow tubes of tubulin o Roles of Microtubules:  Stable – form cilia, flagella o Dynamic microtubules  Crucial organizing role in all eukaryotic cells  Cell shape, positioning of organelles,  Movement of chrms during mitosis (mitotic spindle)  Form system of ‘tracks’ for movement of vesicles/organelles o Microtubules provide rails – motor proteins provide engines  A class of biological ‘motors’ that are able to move along a suitable surface – powered by ATP Hydrolysis  Motors that move along the microtubules:  Kinesins = move towards the plus + end  Dyneins = move towards the minus – end  Microfilaments o Made up of Actin Filaments o Aid in cell movement  Extracellular Matrix – Cell Wall o Cross-linked network of filaments BIOL 130 o Resists stretching and straining forces (like steel rods) o Semi-solid gelatinous matrix (polysaccharide/proteins) – resists compression (like concrete)  Epithelial and Extracellular Matrix overview: Epithelia l cell Epithelium Connective tissue Fibroblast Smooth Muscle cells muscle Connective tissue Epithelial cell o Cells supported internally by cytoskeleton, held together by cell-cell junctions and extracellular matrix (ECM) – secreted by cells themselves o Animal tissues need to be strong, yet capable of rapid movement, quick changes in shape  Connective Tissue o Characterized by – large amount of ECM – which provides the mechanical strength o Contrast: epithelial, muscle and neural tissues – cells are directly connect to each other, such that cytoskeleton provides the mechanical strength o Many types: tendo
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