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Biol130 - Unit 3 Thermodynamics Lecture Notes.pdf

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University of Waterloo
BIOL 130
Todd Holyoak

Unit 3Thermodynamic LawsGibbs free energy Measures amount of energy from reactions1st energy can be transferred and transformed but not created or destroyedMeasures spontaneity of reactions endo or exo2nd energy tends to spontaneously disperse from being localized ordered to becoming spread out disordered Predicts chemical equilibriaCan cause disorder in bonds by 2 waysDoes NOT predict rate of reactionChanging bond energy releases heat creating disorder in atmosphereCan be additive through coupling to allow unfavourable reactions to occur Reactions breaking chain of molecules can cause disorderEntropy disorderStandard Free EnergyKinetic energyenergy of motion heatLets us compare reactions under specific temp pressure and Potential energystored energy electrons in chemical bondspH 7 concentration 1 MWill it go right or leftWhen will it stopExergonic reactionsFavorableThe quantity represents the gain or loss of free energy as 1M Spontaneous occurs without input of energyof reactants is converted to 1M of productsLess ordered more entropyLets us compare spontaneity of diff reactionsReleases energyProducts have lower potential energy than reactantsCouplingAn energetically unfavourable reaction can be coupled to a Endergonic reactionshighly favourable reaction if they share one or more Not Favorableintermediates Not SpontaneousMore ordered less entropyAbsorbs energyProducts have higher potential energy than reactantsRates of Spontaneous reactionsHow do enzymes workEven if reactions are spontaneous doesnt mean they are fast or will occur right awaySubstrates bind to the active site on an enzyme must fit One bond has to break be
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