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BIOL 130 Course Notes.pdf

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BIOL 130
Heidi Engelhardt

BIOL 130 Course Notes Unit 1Introduction to the CellHistoryRobert HookeFirst microscope viewed slices of cork cellulaAntoni Van Leeuwenhoek300x magnificationSinglecelled organisms animalscules Theodor SchwannCell TheoryCell TheoryAll organisms consist of one or more cellsThe cell is the basic unit of structure for all organismsAll cells arise only from preexisting cellsBasic Properties of CellsUse the same genetic program Central Dogma DNARNAproteinEngage in many mechanical activities transport assembly motilityRespond to environmental signals stimuli hormonesAre capable of selfregulationHomeostasisProkaryotesNo real nucleusEubacteriaall have cell wall except mycoplasmaArchaebacteriaall have cell wall best known are extremophilesThree shapesspherical rodshaped spiralEukaryoteProtistsmostly single cells algae mold protozoaFungisingle cellmulticellular cells walls heterotrophs yeast mushroomsPlantsmulticellular cell wallsAnimalsmulticellular no cell walls heterotrophsEndosymbiont TheoryCertain organelles mitochondria chloroplasts evolved from smaller prokaryotes engulfed by larger cellModel OrganismsEa coliDNA replication gene transcription translationSaccharomyces cerevisiae yeastcell cycle minimal model eukaryoteArabidopsis thalianaall flowering plants are closely relatedDrosophila melanogastergenetics developmentCa elegans the wormfirst animal genome to be sequenced location lineage and fate of every cell in embryo larva and adult is knownMousemodel mammal genetics well understood Unit 2Cellular ChemistryMacromoleculesFunctional GroupsComponents of organic molecules typically involved in chemical reactionsHydroxyl OH AlcoholsCarbonyl CO AldehydeAminoNH Amine 3 Amide SulfhydrylSH ThiolPhosphates PO Organophosphates 4MacromoleculesCondensation Reactionmaking the chainAnabolismHydrolysisbreaking the chainCatabolismProteinsPolymers made up of amino acidsUsed as enzymes for transport support signallingregulating movement and defenseAmino acids are joined by an amide linkage known as a peptide bond making polypeptide chainSide chain extends from peptidebonded backbone in polypeptide chainBackbone is directionalconvention is to number amino acid residues starting as N terminus Primary SequenceStructurePrimaryLinear amino acid sequenceSecondaryFolding into elements of structure
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