BIOL130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Glycerol, Amphiphile, Diglyceride

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6 Aug 2016
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Macromolecules- Lipids
1) Lipids
- Non-polymer macromolecule
- Types: fats, sterols, phospholipids
- Lipid function: energy storage, cellular signalling, biological membranes
2) Fats
- Triglycerides, esterification/ester linkages
3) Phospholipids
- Structure: polar head groups, fatty acid tails, amphipathic
4) Sterols and Other Lipids
- Steroids, glycolipids, polyisoprenoids
5) Lipid Structure
- Aggregates: micelles, fat droplets, bilayers
6) Lipid bilayers/Membranes
- Properties, composition, formation, fluid mosaic model, influence of saturated/unsaturated
ratios and cholesterol content
Lipids
-Group of carbon-containing compounds that are largely non-polar / hydrophobic
Significant proportion of a given lipid molecule is hydrocarbon
-The only macromolecule that is not a polymer
-Major groups of lipids in cells:
Fats / oils
oEnergy storage
Weight for weight contain 6x as much energy as glucose
-Sterols
Cholesterol – membrane component
Steroids - hormones
-Phospholipids
Major component of biological membranes
Fats (Triacylglycerols, Triglycerides)
Fatty acids are stored as an energy reserve (fats and oils) through an ester linkage to glycerol to form
triglycerides
-fatty acid (carboxylic acid with long hydrocarbon ‘tail’)
-Fat molecules (triglycerols) are completely hydrophobc, unlike phospholipids
Fatty Acids: Saturated versus Unsaturated
Saturated – no double bonds (full of hydrogens), no kinks in tail
Unsaturated – one or more double bonds (not full of hydrogens) that are rigid, creates kinks
-Cis – hydrogens on double bonds are on the same side
-Trans – hydrogens on double bonds are on the opposite sides
-Trans unsat/cis unsat/saturated: all three are C18 fatty acids
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