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BIOL 150
Ken Oakes

Geography Climate Soils Biology Human Influences Tundra Northern Scandinavia, - Cold and dry Rate of decomposition: LOW Plants: herbaceous: grasses, sedges, - extraction of oil, natural European Russia, - Short summers - solifuction = freezing and mosses, lichens gas, minerals Siberia, Alaska, Canada - 200-600mm thawing of surface soil + - woody veg: dark willows, birches, low- - permafrost >>CO2 to water + gravity moves soils growing shrubs atmosphere!! down slopes - very short and strong stems (wind) Animals: caribou, reindeer, musk, ox, bear, wolves, fox, weasel, lemming, ground squirrel Snowy owl, insects Boreal Forest Scandinavia, European - winters longer Low fertility, thin, acidic Plants: evergreen conifers(spruce, fir, - hunting, lumber, oil and (Taiga) Russia, Siberia, central than 6mths Low temp and low pH slow pines) gas exploration Alaska, all of central - cold and dry decomposition - willows along rivers and lakes Canada - short summers - mosses and non-vascular plants on - some moderate, base of trees and forest floor most variable - steep vertical gradient in color and - 200-600mm intensity - brief droughts Animals: migratory caribou and reindeer, - low temp mousse and woodland bison , wolves, bears, lynx, wolverine, snowshoe hare, porcupines, red squirrels , spring migrate birds Temperate Forest - Asia: Japan, eastern - moderate temp Fertile esp in deciduous Plants: vertically stratified: herb - logging and agriculture China, Korea, eastern variation - neutral, slightly acidic in layer>shrubs and saplings>shade-tolerant - can recover Siberia - coniferous have pH understory trees> canopy - Western Europe drought - rich in org matter and Animals: deer mice, tree squirrels, flying - s.eastern Aaska - deciduous has low inorganic nutrients squirrels > deer, bear, fox > bats and - s. hemi: Chile, NZ, s. seasonal variation in others (tree cavities) aus prec - fungi and bacteria recycle - 650-3000mm Temperate - N America: - 300-1000mm Most productive are deep, Plants: herbaceous veg, woody veg - agriculture developments Grassland southern Canada to - peak in prec basic neutral (black) excluded by fire, drought and grazing; (N America) gulf of mex coincide with trees and shrubs along streams and rivers, - loss of 35% to 40% org - Eurasia peak in temp up to 70 flowers bloom in spring matter in soils - S. hemi: NZ, Aus, S. - cold and dry Animals: wolves, grizzly bears, bison, brazil, Argentina winter pronghorms pushed to mts - droughts may be - now have grasshoppers and mice, several yrs burrowing badger and prairie dog and fleet of swift foxes and prairie falcon Mediterranean - all continents - Cool and moist Low to moderate fertility - evergreen shrubs and trees with High pop’n density woodland and except Antarctica in fall, spring, due to fire small tough leaves to conserve - agriculture system > shrubland - med sea and N. winter w
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