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BIOL 150 - Week 1 Lecture Notes

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BIOL 150
Rebecca Rooney

BIOL 150 Fall 2013 September 9, 2013 - Lecture 1 What is Science? • objective principles are unbiased and generalizable • systemized observation and experimental control for external factors • properties of everything and how they interact or are interdependent Basic Research Applied Research • driven by curiosity of researcher • done to solve a particular problem, often leads • primarily done at Universities/Governments to new or improved technology • eg nuclear reactors, weapons, etc.. MMR Vaccine and Autism • vaccine against measles, mumps, rubella given to children Proper Study: less than 5 large number (50) vaccinated • 1998 study in the Lancet - linked vaccine to autism • • stratify by race, gender, parents’ • out of 12 kids, 8 showed symptoms of Autism after income, etc...) vaccination • other 50 unvaccinated • was retracted, data found to be fixed, newer studies found • this is the control group no link • took 13 years to rebound vaccination rates September 11, 2013 - Lecture 2 Inductive Reasoning: Specific▯ ▯ General • repeating specific observations makes it a general observation Deductive Reasoning: General▯ ▯ Specific The Scientific Method science is conservative - builds on existing • • Data: supports or contradicts hypotheses knowledge • Non-numerical data • Hypotheses: “a tentative answer to a well- • Nominal: blonde, brunette, redhead (no logical framed question order) • Inductive: to propose hypotheses • Ordinal: small, medium, large (some order to it) • Deductive: proving hypotheses Binary: present or absent • • The aim is to always disprove a • Numerical data hypothesis • quantitative • failure to falsify a hypothesis does not • discrete: ex. number of seeds per flower prove that hypothesis - there could of (integers only) been another explanation • continuous: ex. location, biomass, water Nature is variable - need to study • depth, etc.. (exact numbers) replication • Theories • hypothesis could be true, but no • broader in scope than a single hypothesis, can lead to supporting evidence - not enough new hypotheses, supported by large body of evidence replicates for how variable system is, • ecology: theory poor discipline of Science - difficult to need more samples make theories about systems that are complex, • hypothesis could be false - need to variable, interdependent and stochastic find supporting evidence. Need better experimental control 1 What is Ecology? • study of scientific relationships between organisms and 4 Laws of Ecology - Barry Commoner their environment 1. everything connected to everything else • derived from “oikologie” - Ernst Haeckel - oikos 2. everything must go somewhere meaning house 3. nature knows best: finds their own • resources: consumed • conditions: not consumed equlibrium 4. there is no such thing as a free lunch • hazards: negative Ecology Ecosystem - Community - Population - Organisms - Organ systems - Organs - Tissues - Cells - Subcellular Organelles - Molecules Types of Ecology: • Organismal Ecology : morphological, physiological and behavioral adaptations for individuals to survive and reproduce • ex. whirligig beetles - air bubbles under wings, wings for migration, hind legs for swimming (natatory), grasping fore legs, compound eyes, etc.. • Population Ecology: group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area at the same Biosphere surrounds the planet time • how the # of individuals change Region (biome) collection of landscapes that have over time • birth, mortality, survival, etc.. similar characteristics • Community Ecology: all species living and interacting with each other Landscape defined, specific area within an ecosystem Ecosystem different organisms and how they • How do communities respon
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