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Lecture 3

BIOL 150 - Week 3 Lecture Notes

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 150
Professor
Rebecca Rooney
Semester
Fall

Description
BIOL 150 Fall 2013 Biome Temperate Forests Boreal Forests Tundra (Taiga) Location Eastern North America, Canada, Alaska, Russia and N. Poles to subartic Western Europe, East Asia, Europe Chile and New Zealand Temperature • moderate, moderate • low, high variation • very low, high variation variation • very cold winters (dormancy) • cold (below freezing) • variable with seasons • cool, short summers (rapid • growing season 6-8 weeks • drops below freezing (plants growth) • permafrost soils dormant) subject to temperature • changes of more than 70 degrees Precipitation • moderate, low variation • low, low variation • very low (lower than desert), • fire less common • similar to grasslands low variation • enables trees to dominant • moist because evaporation • soil saturated year round b/c is low of low evaporation Biodiversity and Vegetation • moderate biodiversity • evergreens and cold tolerant • low biodiversity • low productivity - due to conifers • treeless - short growing temperature fluctuations - • begin synthesizing early in seasons prevent production does not support spring of nonphotosynthetic tissue photosynthesis year round low biodiversity low growing plants • • • deciduous trees in N • low productivity (above • low productivity - low America and Europe biomass high) decomposition (low above • broad-leaved evergreens in • soils acidic and contain little ground biomass) New Zealand and Chile available nitrogen • most soils in permafrost - low temperature inhibit release of nutrients from decaying organic matter and uptake of nutrients into live roots September 23, 2013 - Lecture 7 Ecological Classifications Ontario Ecological Land Classification System • system for getting consistent description, identification and mapping of ecological land units ecological land unit: distinct ecological areas identified by geology, topography, soils, vegetation, • climate, species, and anthropogenic factors that can influence the biotic composition or ecosystem processes within a unit • History: • early work by Angus Hills (1952, 1958) • research scientist at Ontario’s MNR for 23 years, editor of journal Landscape Planning since 1974 - holistic and ecological approach to land use planning • focused on ecoregion and ecodistrict levels • adopted by Ontario in 1978 ad reaffirmed in 1989 • National efforts by Rowe (1962, 1971) • 1990s - minor revisions by Burger based on vegetation successional patterns revised in 2000-2003 - new geographic information technology and desire to fit the national • framework • Goal: to identify recurring ecological patterns of the landscape to reduce complex natural variation to a reasonable number of meaningful units 9 Topography, Bedrock domain and Sets of ecosites, land substrate, hydrology, long term climate form, surface material, vegetation, species at patterns risk management, vegetation, old growth, Ecozones▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯road access planning, environmental wood supply assessments (Crown ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Ecodistricts▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Ecosites Forest Sustainability ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Act) ▯ ▯ Ecoregion▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Ecosections ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Surface geology Range▯and pattern▯of ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Ecoelements climate variables, with and topography influence on vegetative type and soil formation Substrate and vegetation types, may occur in multiple ecosites or ecodistricts, mapping areas of special management concern, evaluation natural heritage, Ecozones restoration planning • nation framework of 15 ecozones 3 in Ontario • • relate to bedrock domain and long-term climate patterns responds to global or continental cycles and processes operating on the order of 10000 -100000s of • years • coarse resource management: analyses of climate, demographics, watersheds Ontario’s Ecozones Hudson Bay Lowlands Ontario Shield Mixedwood Plains Percent of Ontario • 25.2% of Ontario • 66% of Ontario • 8.4% of Ontario • Boreal: 52% of Ontario • Great Lakes: 14.4% of Ontario Climate • long winters, short summers • variable, long winter and short • cold winters, warm summers • influence of permafrost warm summer • Boreal: colder and drier • Great Lakes: warmer and wetter (great lakes moderate temperature) Precipitation • semi-arid (240-525 mm annual) • variable precipitation • moist (720-1000 mm/yr) due to • low evaporation, so soil is moist • 500 mm/yr in the west great lakes • 850 mm/yr in the east Bedrock • phanerozoic limestone (ancient • Precambrian Shield (igneous • limestone, dolostone, sandstone, marine seabed) bedrock, glacial deposits) shale (ordovician-Devonian) Topography • flat land, wetlands and peat • lots of headwater streams • variable topography • 90% wetland (lowland typically • most trees conifers, but some • escarpment means wetland) deciduous trees • remnants of prairies and • tundra and slow growing taiga • Boreal: lots of peatland, poor savannahs forests drainage • very little deciduous trees - • Great Lakes: mixed forest and mostly conifers tolerant hardwoods (maple, oak, • only ecozone affected by salt birch) water and tides • Boreal: fire, insects, wind are the dominant drivers - affected by climate change • Great Lakes: Beaver important ecosystem engineer - helps gap dynamic - helps wetland habitat Land Use • 22.7% forest cover • 74.9% forested • 90% of Ontario’s population lives • includes ontario’s largest • Boreal: 73.7% forest, mainly here protected area: Polar Bear conifers • 14.8% forested Provincial Park • Great Lakes: some agriculture land • 59.3% agriculture • diamond mining 10 BIOL 150 Fall 2013 Ecoregions • 14 in Ontario • 7E Lake Erie - Lake Ontario • defined by range and pattern of climate variables, • most biodiverse - carolinian forest, tall with influence on vegetative type and soil formation grass prairie remnants • regional significance of wetlands and natural heritage • most heavily urbanized and industrialized features manufacturing, service jobs and • state of the forest reporting • agricultures • wilderness class targets for provincial parks • most habitat alteration - species at risk
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