• Fungi are polyphyletic and belong to 2 Kingdoms: Kingdom
Protoctista and Kingdom Eumycota(Fungi).
• are more closely related to animals than plants
• Their food reserve is stored as GLYCOGEN, like animals.
• the study of fungus is called Mycology.
• Fungi have a diffuse body called a thallus or mycelium.
• Hyphae: each of the branching filaments that make up the
mycelium of a fungus.
• Mycelium: the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a
network of fine white filaments (hyphae).
• The walls of the hyphal tube is mainly composed of chitin
• They digest their food be secreting exozymes, which digests
the food externally and allows the fungus to than absorb
• Fungi have 3 modes of heterotrophic existence:
o 1) Saprobic: process of chemoheterotrophic
extracellular digestion involved in the processing of
dead or decayed organic matter.
o 2) Parasitic: an organism that decomposes living
organisms and tissues. The arrangement only benefits
o 3) Mutualistic: is the way two organisms of different
species exist in a relationship in which each individual
Mycorrhizae: a fungus that grows in association
with the roots of a plant in a symbiotic or mildly
• Many mushrooms are toxic, or even lethal is ingested.
• The role of Fungi is important as they decompose billions of
tops of plant and animal material every year.
• The mycelium is the “fungal body”, and is composed of many
• hyphae are composed of cell wall with chitin and cellulose
• The thickness and other features of hyphae can vary,
depending on the species. Genus Armillaria
• Forms stringy runners under the bark of trees.
• can extend up to 100m or greater
• can live for hundreds of years
Phylogeny of Fungi
• True fungi are related coanoflagellates and metazoa; all are in
the SuperGroup Opisthokonta
• Lower Fungi
o Called Pseudofungi
o Includes Phylum Oomycota and Phylum Chrtridiomycota
• Higher Fungu
o Lichens (include some algae)
o Division Dikaryomycota and Division Zygomycota
Pseudofungi – Phylum Oomycota
• one of the lower fungi
• Evidence suggests they are part of Chromista Clade, or
SuperGroup Chromaveolata, in Kingdom Protoctista
• They are oogamous, but can also reproduce asexually
o Asexually via zoosporangia and heterokontous
• 2 Orders
o 1 aquatic; Water Mold
o 1 terrestrial; Downy mildews – converged with
cause extensive damage to crops
Order Peronosporales – Downy Mildews
• Peronospora tabacina causes tobacco blue mold
• Phytophthora infestans causes Potato Blights, as well as
diseasing other plant species.
o ie, Sudden oak death in California
o Dogwood anthracnose in N. America
• Plasmopara viticola causes downymildew in grapes
• often unicellular
• develop within the host in 2 possible ways
o 1) Holocarpic: within the hosts cells
o o 2) Eucarpic: outside of host
• Life Cycle of a Chytrid – Rhizophidium
Eumycotan Fungi – Higher Fungi
• Often called Kingdom Fungi – but misleading since it does not
include all Fungi
• includes higher fungi:
o they form spores that are resistant to desiccation and
have no flagellated cells at ANY point of Life Cycle.
• Is a MONOPHYLETIC group of 3 Main Clades
o 1) Phylum Zygomycota
o 2) Phylum Dikaryomycota – Subphylum Ascomycota
o 3) Phylum Dikaryomycota – Subphylum
• There are non-monophyletic groups that are sometimes
o conidial fungi
• utilize both asexual and sexual reproduction
• Teleomorph: sexual phase in fungus
• Anamorph: asexual phase of fungi – at times only phase
observed in some species
• Teleomorph + Anamorph = Holomorph
• Fungi often have 2 names – one representing teleomorph and
one representing anamorph.
o The Teleomorph name is the Holomorph name.
• includes saprobes that colonize terrestrial substrates (bread,
• Some are parasitic on humans – called mucormycoses
• Hyphae are thick, non-septate; fall apart if dried out.
• Teleomorphs among phyla are similar, Anamorphs differ