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BIOL 165
Kirsten M Muller

KINGDOM METAZOA Phylogeny - Synapomorphies  Collagen (long proteins form triple helix that are strong) Proteoglycans (in vivo roles are not well understood) Glycoproteins (large, branched molecules that resist compression) Integrin (connects extracellular matrix to outside of cells) - Monophyletic - 2 sub kingdoms: protozoa metazoa - extracellular matrix becomes mineralized and forms bones - Diploid, use gametes to reproduce via meiosis - sexual and asexual, some use parthenogenesis (reproduction involving unfertilized eggs) Classification - Acoelomates lack body cavity - Pseudoceolomates have body cavity lined with peritoneum (traditionally polyphyletic) - Coelomates body cavity lined with mesodermal peritoneum - COELOMARE NOTASYNAPOMORPHIC TRAIT** - First fossils date back to late pre-cambrian era. Sponges - simplest type of metazoan - body: cell masses embedded in gelatinous matrix, supported by skeleton of spicules composed of collagen and calcium carbonate or silica - no organs or tissue (SESSILE: permanently stuck) - limited movement - most are marine - sexually and asexually - MORPHOLOGY  choanocytes: worker cells, involved with food capture (phagocytosis)  Archeocytes: amoeboid cells that move in matrix and change into other cells  pinocytes: form flat epiderm  Spicules and sponging: form skeleton - REPRODUCTION  asexual: fragmentation and budding  sexual: monoecious (both male and female reproductive organs)  choanocytes transform into sperm  zygote changes into ciliate larva nourished by adult Cnidarians - no head - body has 2 layers: epidermis and gastrodermis - 2 growth forms: polyps and medusa (umbrella shaped body with stinging tentacles around edge) - stinging cells: nematocysts (specialized cells in tentacles of jelly fish, coiled thread that can be projected) - nerve and sensory organs - simple muscular system - gastrovascular cavity with single opening (mouth and anus) - asexual by budding - sexual through monoecious or dioecious and involves gametes - no coelom, no excretory system or respiratory system - Anthozoans: anemones and corals, build up from accumulated calcium carbonate skeletons of dead polyps and calcium sand of algae - Hydrozoa: look like anthozoans, corals and jelly fish - Scyphozoans: jellyfish, few are sessile Phylogeny of Protosomes and Deuterostomes - Protostomes: mouth first, then anus - Deuterostomes: anus first, then mouth Lophotrochoza - composed of lophophorata clade (recently expanded to include protostomes) and trochozoa clade (earthworms, nemertines, snails, clams, and octopuses - PLATYHELMINTHES: flatworms, flukes, tapeworms  bilateral (two sides), unsegemented(body not divided into 2 segments), no body cavity  tri
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