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BIOL 239
Christine Dupont

BioL 239 Medallion genetics - Set 1 Chapter 3 power of genes : domestication of plants and animals, artificial selection: ie manipulating to there benefit Phenotype is a trait: behavior or physical characteristic seen earliest in dogs, domesticated wolves, not tamed wolves - domestication is when they lose wild instinct and breeding cycles, genetically preprogrammed to be purposeful for humans - dogs were the first domestication around 15-20,000 yrs ago - taken the wolf and made it into something cute, but still have the sane genes, humans have selected flavors of genes, and selectively breed to get certain characteristics, have all diff sizes and shapes however same characteristics - on the surface we look different however we all have the same genes, if you tweek it slightly you get different version of the genes ie phenotypically diverse - they continue to do this for there own purpose to breed diff types of dogs, aggressive or more passive, different qualities - canis familiaris breeds, not species - if they can breed naturally then that shows you how closely related in chromosomal characterization and genetically similar - now hybridizing in polar bears with brown bears due to climate change - belyaev : silver fox is a color morph of phenotype, tried to get them less aggressive and researched for foxes with less aggressive and force breed them and withing 4 generations and outcome: getting happy and aggressive foxes profound influence on phenotypes vs behavior, this displayed nature vs nurture - after animals, domestication of many plants, conditions were good - got rid of wheety characteristics Gregor Mendel experimented with garden peas - dont need to force them to make and produce large number of offspring and can reproduce quickly - also had particular traits : colour flowers and peas as well as shape and texture - breeding lines allowed him to look at patterns and to see how to control - self fertalize, in order to cross fertilize needed to remove male parts and by hand fertilize the peas - had 2 true breeding lines and then started cross fertilization - looked at many traits - bases theories under conditions slide 14 - male is more dominant of traits and female was just the carrier - 2nd theroy parental traits contribute most to offspring - monohybrid crosses everything is the same except size, only looking at one gene - flavours or alleles ie one gene for eye color but could be blue,green,brown ect and have alternate form of the gene - allele is a variant of particular gene or alternate form - gene is still there even tho it isnt working - pg 17 - smooth allele or wrinkled allele - most eukaryotes have 2 copies of the gene b/c you get 1 set form each parent, true for humans and drosophila, but not true fro all eukaryotes, some have one or multiple copies - homologous chromosomes, diff alleles have difference variance - gene/alleles are in italics - the protein product is non italics - pg 18 - multiple alleles of the genes : polymorphic means many diff version of the gene but really means how often do you see the diff versions in natural population - monomorphic: critical metabolic processes : sickle cell anima, - those genes have one that dominate the population pg 19 - mendel was workith simple alleles that gave recessive or dominant - segragation - pg 22 - male is homo recessive - female is homo dominant - punnentt [ ] - outcome is heterozygous, - phenotype shows smooth can only use dominant/recessive for homozygous watch the numbers shows the possibilities but there could be 100s of offspring not just 4 pg 25 phenotypically tall but heterozygous - when ever you breed in simple case of dom or recessive u will get 3:1 and 1:2:1 - Genetotypic ration 1:2;1 pg 26 -how allele apprear to behaves dna produce protein products diff in allele and dna sequence and will affect amount of protein or amino acids sequence in the protein and agin diff outcomes - pg 29 - gene determines texture SBE1 - the enzyme is not in italics - memorize these ratios pg 31 pg 32 -33 how would
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