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Set 12.docx

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BIOL 239
Christine Dupont

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Set 122 Gene expression the flow of genetic information from DNA via RNA to proteinwe start with a central dogma The central dogma is the flow of information and how everything in your cells and your body is built It starts with DNA information which is transcribed into a messenger molecular called messenger RNA in eukaryotesit carries information out of the nucleus and out into the cytoplasm where it gets translated to polypeptides which get together to form proteins Polypeptides can construct to give proteins but not necessarilypolypeptides are constructed by adding amino acid building blocks into chainsthats the central dogma Linear progression from DNA to RNA to proteinnot all organisms follow this Retroviruses like HIV go all over the place with this central dogma They make RNA then DNA from that then mRNA from that then protein genomes from the RNA as well We are pretty simple compared to that3 The genetic codeproteins come from amino acids There are about 20 common amino acidsHow can 4 nucleotides encode 20 amino acids there is a code Computer programmers using binary codesbinary codes give you the capacity to account for 16 amino acids less than 20 it was deduced it must be at least a triplet code of three amino acids which gives you 64 which is more than what you needThrough groupings into triplets3464they deduced that this triplet codon each nucleotide will be called a codon It codes for one unique amino acidEach nucleotide triplet is known as a codon4 The genetic code mRNAIn mRNA uracil U is substituted for thyme T from DNAdont memorize You just need to know methionine Dont memorize codons Know that AUG codes for methionine It is the start codon that begins the translation for proteins Its almost universal in things like humans and bacteriaalso for this chart its given in the RNA version because RNA is made directly to protein Somecharts will give you the DNA version Uracil u will be switched to thymine tEcoli as a model prokaryotethey had to prove that its a triplet codon They had to investigate the mode of getting this information from the DNA to the RNA and then to a protein5 A genes nucleotide sequence is collinear with the encoded polypeptide
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