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University of Waterloo
BIOL 240
Josh Neufeld

Fundamentals of Microbiology Biology 140 Course notes Dr Josh D Neufeld Topic 9 Principles of Bacterial Genetics ILearning Objectives To learn some of the terminology of microbial genetics and also to begin to understand the tremendous power of the genetic approach Microbial Genetics is of fundamental importance for many reasons First cell function is determined by gene function and gene regulation Also since genetics of prokaryotic microorganisms is generally much more accessible than genetics of eukaryotic organisms with the exception perhaps of yeast microbial systems are very useful as experimental systems Microbial Genetics gave rise to Molecular Biology and most of the tools of molecular cloning are of prokaryotic originTerminologyMutant a strain carrying a mutationGenotype genetic description of a strain eg hisCPhenotype observable properties of a strain eg HisWildtype strain the original isolate from which mutant strains are derived Depending on their phenotype mutations may be selectable or nonselectable Selectable mutations confer on the strain the ability to grow under conditions that do not allow growth of a strain that does not carry the mutation For example an antibiotic resistance phenotype would be selectable whi
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