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University of Waterloo
BIOL 273
Katherine Wood

Unit 4Cardiovascular System Chapter 14 Cardiovascular PhysiologyCardiovascular system is a closed systemCapillariesmicroscopic vessels where blood exchanges material with the ICF o Discovered by Marcello MalpighiOneway flow of blood in the heartThe once thought of spirits that controlled the heart are now called hormones and cytokines OVERVIEW OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMCardiovascular systema series of blood vessels tubes filled with blood fluid and connected to a pump the heart o Pressure generated in heart pumps blood through body o Blood picks up oxygen at the lungs o Blood picks up nutrients at the intestinesDelivers themRemoves cellular wastes and heat for excretion o Plays an important role in celltocell communication and defending the body against invaders The Cardiovascular System Transports Materials Throughout the BodyPrimary function of this system is to transport materials from one place to anotherSubstances transported by cardiovascular system o Nutrients water and gasesenter body from external environmentOxygen enters body at exchange surfaces in lungsNutrients enter in intestine across epithelium o Materials that move from celltocell within the body o Wastes that the cells eliminateCelltocell communication is a key part of the cardiovascular system o Hormones secreted by endocrine glands travel through blood to their targets o Blood also carries nutrients from ex liver to metabolically active cells o White blood cells and antibodies patrol circulationintercept foreign invadersCV system also removes carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes o Transports them to lungs and kidneys for excretion o Some metabolic wastes are transported to the liver before excretionHeat also circulates through blood o Moving from core to surface where it dissipates The Cardiovascular System Consists of the Heart Blood Vessels and BloodHeart is divided by central wallsepta o Divides right and left halvesEach half has an atrium and a ventricleAtriumreceives blood returning to the heart from blood vesselsVentriclepumps blood out into blood vesselsRight side of heartreceives deoxygenated not totallymore deoxygenated than blood that leaves the heart from the left side to go to the body blood from tissues and sends it to lungs for oxygenationLeft side of heartreceives oxygenated blood and sends it to the bodyIn living people o Welloxygenated bloodbright red o Lowoxygen blooddarker redCan be blueish in colour at certain parts of the bodycyanosisEx at fingernails or mouthBlood flow o From right atriumright ventriclepumped into pulmonary arteries to lungs where blood if oxygenatedto left side of heart through pulmonary veins Blood vessels that go from the right ventricle to lungs and back to left atriumpulmonary circulation o Pulmonary veinsleft atriumleft ventriclepumped out by aortaAorta branches to smaller arteries and finally to capillaries o Aortacapillariesto venous side of circulationto smaller veinsto larger veinsfrom upper body into superior vena cavafrom lower body to interior vena cava venae cavaepluralempty into right atriumBlood vessels that go from left side of heart to tissues and back to right side of the heartsystemic circulationBranches of aortao First branchcoronary arteriesNourish the heart muscle Blood flows into arteriesthen to capillariesthe to coronary veins that empty into right atrium at coronary sinus o Ascending branchesgo to head arms and brain o Abdominal aortablood to the trunk and legsTo liverhepatic arteryTo kidneysrenal arterySpecial circulation of digestive system and liver o Receive oxygenated blood by their own arteries o Leaving blood from their veins goes to liver byhepatic portal vein o Liver detoxifies substancesDigested nutrients from intestine goes to liverprocesses before it goes to general circulation o This system is an ex of a portal system
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