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BIOL 273
Katherine Wood

Unit 4Cardiovascular System Chapter 16 Blood PLASMA AND THE CELLULAR ELEMENTS OF BLOOD Plasma In Extracellular MatrixPlasmafluid portion of blood where cellular elements are suspended o Water main component92 of weight o Proteins7 of weight o Dissolved organic molecules ions trace amount of vitamins and dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide1 of weightEx amino acids glucose lipids and nitrogenous wastes and sodium ions calcium ions potassium ions chlorine ions protons and HOC 3 Plasma and interstitial fluidsame composition o Exceptplasma proteins in plasma and not interstitial fluidAlbuminsmost prevalent protein in plasma60Albumins and 9 other proteins make up the plasmaEx globulins Ex fibrinogenclotting proteinEx transferringirontransporting proteinMake up more than 90 of plasma proteinsLiver makes most plasma proteinssecretes them into bloodGlobulins Immunoglobulins antibodiessynthesized and secreted by specialized blood cells rather than the liverPlasma proteins makes the osmotic pressure of the blood higher than the interstitial fluid o Pulls water from interstitial fluid into capillariesPlasma proteins functions o Blood clotting o Defence against foreign invaders 2o Carriers for steroid hormones cholesterol drugs and certain ions ex ionFe o Some act as hormones or EC enzymes Cellular Elements Include RBCs WBCs and Platelets BLOOD CELL PRODUCTIONAll blood cells come from a single precursor cell typepluripotent hematopoietic stem cell o Found in bone marrow soft tissue that fills hollow center of bonesPluripotent stem cellsability to develop into many different types of cells o They narrow their fates as they developUncommitted stem cells 1100000 cells in bone marrowprogenitor cellcommitted to one or two cell typesProgenitor cells differentiate to o RBCs o Lymphocytes o WBCs o Megakaryocytesparent cells of plateletsUncommitted hematopoietic stem cellsused to replace stem cells that have died in patients with cancerfrom chemotherapyo Obtained from bone marrow or peripheral bloodBetter sourceumbilical bloodumbilical cord blood banking programsRich source of hematopoietic stem cellsused for transplant in patients with haematological diseases o Ex leukemia Blood Cells Are Produced in the Bone MarrowHematopoiesissynthesis of blood cells o Beings early in embryonic developmentcontinues through life o Week 3 of fetal developmentspecialized cells in yolk sacform clustersClustersbecome endothelial lining of blood vessels and others become blood cells o Cytokines that control hematopoesisreleased by vascular endothelium o Embryo developsblood cell production spreads from yolk sacliver spleen and bone marrow o Liver and spleendont produce blood cells by birth o Hematopoesis continues until age 5in bone marrow o Child agesactive regions of bone marrow decrease o Adultsonly areas producing blood cells PelvisSpineRibsCraniumProximal ends of bonesActive bone marrowred because it contains hemoglobin o Oxygenbinding protein of RBCs o Produces blood cells25 of developing cellsRBCslive for approx four months in circulation75 of developing cellsWBCsWBC last a shorter time than RBCsreplaced more frequentlyEx neutrophiles6 hour halflifebody makes 100 million neutrophiles each day to replace the ones that die
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