Class Notes (807,350)
Canada (492,715)
Biology (2,161)
BIOL 273 (91)


22 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Waterloo
BIOL 273
Katherine Wood

Unit 5Respiratory System Chapter 17 Mechanics of BreathingAerobic metabolismdepends on steady supply of oxygen and nutrients from environment o And removal of carbon dioxide o Small aquatic animalssimple diffusionDistance limits diffusion rate o Multicellular animalsspecialized respiratory organsLarge surface area in a small spaceLarge animals face dehydrationexchange surface must be thin and moist o Allows gasses to pass from air into solutionmust be protected from drying out by airEx some animals only stay in humid environments o Anatomical solution for dehydrationinternalized respiratory epitheliumHuman lungsenclosed in chest cavityControl contact with outside airCreates humid environment for gas exchange with bloodProtects delicate exchange surfaceInternalized lung challengemoving air from environment to exchange surface deep within the body o Air flow requiresmuscular pump to create pressure gradients o Two components in complex systemsMuscledriven pumpEx in humansmusculoskeletal structure of thoraxThin moist exchange surfaceEx in humanexchange epithelium and associated blood vesselsFour primary functions o Exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the bloodBrings in oxygendistributed to tissuesEliminates carbon dioxideo Homeostatic regulation of body pHAlter body pH by retaining or eliminating carbon dioxide o Protection from inhaled pathogens and irritating substancesHas defence mechanisms that trap and destroy harmful pathogens before they can enter the body o VocalizationAir moving across vocal cordsproduces speechRespiratory systemssite for water and heat loss from the body o Must be balanced by homeostasisLung exchange air in bulk flow o Flow takes place from high to low pressure o Muscular pump creates pressure gradients o Resistance is influenced by diameter of the tubes the air is flowing throughDifference between air flow and blood flowair is less viscous o Aircompressible mixture of gases o Bloodnoncompressible liquid THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEMCellular respirationintracellular reaction of oxygen with organic molecules to produce carbon dioxide water and energyATPExternal respirationmovement of gases between the environment and the bodys cellsfour integrated processes o Exchange of air between atmosphere and lungsventilationInspirationair into lungsExpirationair out of lungsMechanics of breathingmechanisms by which ventilation takes place o Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between lungs and blood o Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide by the blood o Exchange of gases between blood and the cellsE respiration requires coordination from the respiratory and CV systems o Respiratory systemstructures involved in ventilation and gas exchangeConducting system of passages airwayslead from external environment to the exchange surface of the lungsAlveoli sing alveolusseries of interconnected sacs and associated pulmonary capillaries
More Less

Related notes for BIOL 273

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.