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Unit 1- Introduction

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BIOL 273
Vivian Dayeh

1a Introduction to Human Physiology 1a1 Introduction pg 2 810 A What is Physiology Question What is Physiology Answer Study of structure and function of a living organism and its component parts Understanding physiology requires a large vocabulary of new terms Learning physiology is similar to learning a new language B Key ConceptsThemes in Physiology There are several key concepts or themes that are important in understanding physiologyStructure and Function Biological energy Information flow Homeostasis1a 2 Levels of Organization pg 25 7879 92 A Organizational Levels of Living Organisms Living organisms have several levels of organization A Chemical atoms and molecules B Cellular neuron lymphocyte C Tissue collection of cells eg Connective D Organ structural unit made of tissues eg Heart E Organ system integrated group of organs F Organism individual form of life G Community Ecosystem BiosphereB Physiology is an Integrative Science Physiology considers many different levels of organization see above There are a few unanswered questions at the organ system level at this time Most physiology research today focuses on the cellular and molecular level Researchers attempt to understand how events within a single cell influence neighbouring cells tissues organs and organ systems C Tissue Types Cells in the body assemble into larger units called tissues Cells are held together by cell junctionsanchoring junctions gap junctions tight junctions In between the cells is the extracellular matrixsynthesized and secreted by cells in the tissue There are four primary tissue types in the human body Epithelial connective muscle and neural1 Epithelial Epithelia protect the internal environment of the individual Regulate exchange of material between the external environment and internal environmentany material that moves between these two environments must cross an epithelium For the protection and regulation of material exchange
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