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BIOL 303 Study Questions 14

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BIOL 303
Dragana Miskovic

Study Questions – Lecture Set 14 (Neural Crest) 1. What is the origin of the neural crest cells? How are they specified and into what four general cell types can they differentiate? The neural crest is derived from the ectoderm. It is often considered as the fourth germ layer, a transient structure that can undergo epithelial to mesenchyme transition and become migratory. They can become: -neuron and glia of peripheral nervous system -epinepherine producing cells of the adrenal glands -melanocytes -skeletal and connective tissue in the head Their specification is determined by neural plate inductive signals BMP and Wnts. If Wnt turns on BMPs and Wnt stays on, the neural crest is established. 2. FoxD3, snail, twist, and Sox9 are examples of neural crest specifier genes. What events are associated with expression of these genes? Events such as epithelial-to-mesenchyme transition and delamination are associated with the expression of these genes. Without Sox9, the cells will undergo apoptosis when they delaminate. 3. There are four general regional fates of neural crest cells according to their position of origin along the anterior/posterior axis. What is the name each region and which region is the only one that specifies bone forming cells (osteoblasts)? What general developmental class of genes is responsible for specifying these different regions? The four regions are: -cranial: cartilage and bones, neurons and glia in face, thymic cells, odontoblasts/teeth, middle ear bones and jaw -cardiac: melanocytes, neurons cartilage, connective tissue, musculature and connective tissue of large as arteries and heart septum -trunk: dorsal root ganglia/sensory neurons, sympathetic ganglia, adrenal medulla, nerve clusters around aorta and melanocytes -vagal and sacral: enteric ganglia (for peristalsis in gut) Cranial region specifies the bone forming cells. Hox genes are responsible for specifying these different regions. 4. Outline the possible fates of neur
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