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Lecture 24 - Proteins affecting Transcription - BIOL308.pdf

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BIOL 308
Bruce Wolff

Lecture 24Proteins that affect TranscriptionBasal transcriptionwas shown only in vitroIn vivo eukaryotic promoters have to be activated by upstream bound transcription factorsProteins that directly influence on RNAP bindingGTFsbind to core promoter or RNAPII or each otherRole to anchor RNAPIITFactivators and repressorsbind to DNA at proximal elements enhancerssilencers even core promoter elementsEg If CG is a coreSometimes need help to reach initiation complexOther proteinscomplexes that affect transcriptionCoactivatorsandmediatorsbind to both activators and basal apparatus bridgeChromatin remodeling enzymes and other regulatorscan act on local chromatin structureDomains in eukaryotic TFbinding proteinsIn order for protein to be transcription activator repressor itHas to be able tobind to DNA1Has to be able to activate or repress transcription2Transcription factors are modular proteins different domains different functionsDomainsthe tertiary structure of large proteins is organized in distinct regions of the protein which have different functionsDomain is a stable unit of a protein structure that can fold autonomouslyDomain can be active and stable on its ownwhen removed from the rest of the proteinMotifsspecific combinations of secondary structures which are organized into specific 3D structure inside the domains responsible for the actual functioningTranscription factors are modular proteins different domains different functionsDNAbinding domainsDBD interacts with specific DNA sequencesTranscription activation domainAD interacts with other proteins to stimulate transcription from a nearby promoterSome transcription factors also haveDimerization domainsHomoor heterodimersLigandbinding domainsLBD binding of accessory small molecule regulates transcription factor activityDNA binding domain DBDStructural motifs of Eukaryotic transcription factors NOTES FROM LECTURES Page 1
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