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Lecture 2

BIOL 350 Lecture 2-3 Supplementary text.pdf

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University of Waterloo
BIOL 350
Roland Hall

BIOL 350 Lecture 2-3 Select Trees & Shrubs of Ontario [Supplementary text to aid with identification] Source of taxonomic information: Kershaw, L. J. 2001. Trees of Ontario, including tall shrubs. Lone Pine Publishing. ISBN 13: 978-1-55105-274-8. Slide 2. Important Note for Tutorial 1 – Tree & Shrub Identification Runs Fridays Sept. 3rd & 20th  Meet at The Link (between B1 & ESC), on the side towards Dana Porter library (the large planter with the Ohio Buckeye and Honey Locust trees.  Involves walking outdoors around campus (rain or shine, hot or cold!!).  Dress appropriately (raingear if raining, avoid high-heels, etc.). Slide 5. Note Note: This lecture presents many tree and tall shrub species common in Ontario, but the one listed on this slide are not readily found on campus for the Tree ID Tour (Tutorial 1). Consequently, they will not appear on the tutorial tree ID test; you will only be responsible for the 32 species we visit during Tutorial 1. However, the species listed below are important in Ontario from either an ecological or economic perspective, and consequently you should be at least familiar with them. horsetails (Equisetum) red pine (Pinus resinosa) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) jack pine (Pinus banksiana) black spruce (Picea mariana) eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) tag alder (Alnus sp.) bitternut hickory (Carya cordiformis) white oak (Quercus alba) Slide 6. Key features to Identify Trees & Shrubs A. Conifers vs. Deciduous plants: Conifers (or gymnosperms, or softwoods) produce cones rather than flowers and fruits. They produce needle-like leaves and most are evergreen. 1 Deciduous (or angiosperms, or hardwoods) produce leaves with broad, flat blades. They produce flowers with ovules (immature seeds) protected by ovaries, which eventually develop into fruits. Slide 7. Key features to Identify Trees & Shrubs B. Branching in deciduous plants (alternate vs. opposite): Alternate branching: one leaf or branch at each node. Opposite branching: two leaves or branches at each node. Slide 8. Main leaf types Simple, opposite leaves Simple, alternate leaves Palmate, opposite leaves Palmate, alternate leaves Compound, opposite leaves Compound, alternate leaves Needle-like leaves Slide 13. Pioneer species - Goldenrods (Solidago) Goldenrods are one of eastern North America's most common wildflowers. In much of eastern Canada and the northeastern United States, old fields are converted to fields of gold when the goldenrod blooms in late summer. One common misconception about goldenrods is that they are a common cause of hay fever. This is not the case. Goldenrod is an insect-pollinated plant that produces very large and sticky pollen grains. This feature makes sure insects come to feed on the pollen and that some gets stuck to the insect's body. This ensures that some of the pollen gets carried to other goldenrods, allowing cross-pollination. Because goldenrod pollen is so large, it doesn't get carried very far on the wind. Goldenrods are clonal plants which spread by both specialized underground stems called rhizomes and by seeds. Because of this vegetative growth through rhizomes, goldenrods form clumps of stems which are all genetically identical (i.e., clones). 2 Slide 14. Horsetail (Equisetum) In the plant world, horsetails are most closely related to ferns. Like the ferns, they do not produce seed, but rather reproduce sexually through the formation of spores. Short-lived, fertile shoots (2-12” tall) are produced in the spring and are topped with a spore-bearing cone. These stems are jointed and yellowish in color. The hollow, jointed, unbranched stems of horsetail are the plant structure most people are familiar with. The leaves of horsetail are reduced to small scales at stem joints, and thus the stem is the primary photosynthetic organ. Horsetail stems contain high concentrations of silica and were once used to scour and clean various surfaces – hence the common name “scouring rush”. Spores are relatively unimportant in the spread of horsetails. Horsetail produces an extensive underground rhizome system that can reach depths of four feet or more. Patches of equisetum expand radially as the rhizomes extend outward from the patch center. In the absence of soil disturbance that moves rhizome pieces, lateral spread of horsetail is relatively slow. Horsetail is most commonly found in poorly drained areas, such as roadsides, wetlands and drainage ditches. The preference for wet areas is due to a requirement for a moist environment during reproduction with spores. However, horsetail may move into well-drained soils through vegetative reproduction. [Note: below, bold text identifies key distinguishing features] Slide 16. Species Common in Secondary Communities - Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) Size & Shape: Trees or tall shrubs 4-10 m tall, often forming thickets; crowns rounded Trunks: Often twisted or inclined, 5-10 cm in diameter; bark dark grey-brown, smooth or finely scaly, with prominent lenticels; wood light brown, fine-grained, hard, heavy Branches: Slender, ascending. Twigs strong smelling when crushed Leaves: Alternate, simple, deciduous; usually widest at or above midleaf, abruptly sharp-pointed, 4-12 cm long, edged with small, slender, sharp teeth. Flower: small, white, saucer-shaped, on 5-8 mm stalks. Flowers in cylindrical, 5-15 cm long clusters of 10-25 hanging from the tips of short new leafy shoots. 3 Fruits: Shiny yellow to deep red or black cherries 8-10 mm across that hang in elongated clusters. Habitat: Exposed areas and open woodlands, on substrates ranging from rich soil to rock. Fruits are edible raw, but cause severe puckering and even choking. Usually cooked into sauces, preserves, wine. Native people and settlers used bark and roots to make sedatives, blood-fortifying tonics, appetite stimulants, medicinal teas. All parts of the tree except the cherry flesh contain the toxin hydrocyanic acid. Slide 17. Black elderberry (Sambucus nigra) Size & Shape: A deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 6 m (20 ft) tall and wide (rarely 10m tall). Trunks: Bark is light grey when young, changes to a coarse grey outer bark with lengthwise furrowing. Leaves: opposite, compound, deciduous; 10–30 cm long, pinnate with five to seven (rarely nine) leaflets, the leaflets 5–12 cm long and 3–5 cm broad, with a serrated margin. Flowers: borne in large, flat corymbs 10–25 cm diameter in late spring to mid-summer, the individual flowers ivory white, 5–6 mm diameter, with five petals; they are pollinated by flies. Fruits: glossy dark purple to black berry 3–5 mm diameter, produced in drooping clusters in late autumn; they are an important food for many fruit-eating birds. Habitat: grows in a variety of conditions including both wet and dry fertile soils, primarily in sunny locations. Notes: The berries can be eaten when fully ripe but are mildly poisonous in their unripe state. All green parts of the plant are poisonous, containing cyanogenic glycosides. The berries are edible after cooking and can be used to make jam, jelly, chutney and sauce. The flowerheads are commonly used in infusions, giving a very common refreshing drink in Northern Europe and Balkans. Both flowers and berries can be made into elderberry wine. Traditionally used as a medicinal plant by many native peoples and herbalists alike. Stembark, leaves, flowers, fruits, and root extracts are used to treat bronchitis, cough, upper respiratory cold infections, fever. 4 18. staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) Size & shape: Small trees or shrubs up to 6 m tall, usually forming thickets. Crowns flat-topped Trunks: Short, forked, 5-10 cm in diameter; young bark yellowish-brown, thin, with prominent pores; mature bark scaly; wood orange-green, soft, brittle. Branches: few, wide-spreading; twigs dark velvety-hairy, extruding milky juice when broken Leaves: Alternate, deciduous, compound, pinnately divided into 11-31 leaflets; central stalk reddish, hairy, 30-50 cm long; leaflets dark green above, paler, finely hairy beneath, lance-shaped, 7.5-13 cm long, slender-pointed, sharp toothed, stalkless. Turn orange or puplish in autumn. Flowers: Yellowish-green, tiny; usually unisexual with male and female flowers on separate trees; petals 5; stamens 5; flowers borne in dense, erect, 13-25 cm long, cone-shaped clusters at branch tips, in late June-July. Fruits: Reddish, fuzzy drupes 3-5 mm long, in dense, erect, cone-shaped clusters at branch tips; seeds single, in small stones; fruits mature July-August, persist through winter. Habitat: open, often disturbed sites, typically on dry rocky or sandy soil. Notes: tannin-rich fruit, bark and leaves were used to tan leather. Leaves and fruits were boiled to make black ink. Milky sap was used to treat warts. Fruits can be eaten or used to make juice infusion and jellies. 19. trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) Size & shape: Trees 12-25 m tall; crowns short, rounded; roots shallow, wide-spreading Trunks: Straight, 30-60 cm in diameter, self-pruning; young bark smooth, pale greenish to almost white with dark, diamond-shaped marks, often whitish-powdery; mature bark dary grey, furrowed. Branches: Spreading to ascending; twigs slender, shiny dark green to brownish-grey with orange pores (lenticels), pith 5-pointed (in cross-section); buds shiny reddish-brown, slightly resinous Leaves: Alternate, simple, deciduous; blades dark green above, paler beneath, broadly ovate to almost kidney-shaped, short-pointed, 3-7 cm long, with 20-30 fine, uneven, blunt teeth per side; stalks flattened, slender, usually longer than the blades; leaves yellow in autumn. Flowers: tiny, unisexual with male and female flowers in slender hanging catkins on separate trees; catkins develop in early spring (before the leaves expand) Fruits: Hairless, pointed, numerous, 5-7 mm long capsules, in hanging catkins up to 10 cm long, seeds 1- 3 mm long, tipped with a tuft of silky white hairs; seeds released in early summer (as leaves expand). 5 Habitat: Upland habitats, including rocky, sandy, loamy and clayey soils. Notes: Important source of fibre for chipboard, oriented strand board and paper. Usually reproduces vegetatively, from suckers spreading up from its roots. 21. eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) – leaves scale-like Size & shape: Coniferous trees 15 m tall; crowns steeple-shaped, compact, and ‘neatly trimmed’ (open- grown) to irregular (forest). Trunks: Often buttressed, knobby and/or curved, up to 30 cm in diameter; mature bark grey, 6-15 mm thick, shredding in narrow flat strips Branches: Short, wide-spreading, gradually upturned; twigs many, soft, forming flat, fan-shaped sprays; buds tiny, protected by leaves Leaves: Dull, yellowish-green (sometimes bronze in winter), scale-like, evergreen, leaves near branch tips 2-4 mm long, gland-dotted, overlapping, opposite, in 4 longitudinal rows with leaves flattened Cones: Male and female cones on same tree; male cones yellowish, 1-2 mm long; female cones dry, pale red-brown, 7-12 mm long, upright at branch tips; scales in 4-6 overlapping pairs; seeds light brown, 2-3 mm long, with 2 narrow wings about as wide as the seed body. Habitat: Swampy ground to dry limestone outcrops, prefers humid habitats with high snowfall and calcium-rich soils. Notes: wood is resistant to rot, but the trunks of living trees often hollow from heart-rot. Wood is commonly used for construction (cedar-strip canoes, boats, fences, , shingles, dock posts). Can be very long-lived (7,000 years on Niagara Escarpment!). Natives used it to prevent scurvy and taught practice to French settlers (called the tree ‘tree of life’). In 1536, the French explorer Jacques Cartier, exploring the St. Lawrence River, used the local natives' knowledge to save his men who were dying of scurvy. He boiled the needles of the arbor vitae tree (Eastern White Cedar) to make a tea that was later shown to contain 50 mg of vitamin C per 100 grams. Vitamin C is a cofactor necessary to make collagen for connective tissues. 22. eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) Size & shape: Coniferous trees up to 30 m tall; crowns conical when young, becoming irregular (often lopsided) with age. Trunks: Tall, straight, up to 1 m in diameter; young bark greyish-green, thin, smooth; mature bark dark greyish-green, 2-5 cm thick with broad ridges of purple-tipped scales; 6 Branches: Stout, irregular, horizontal to ascending; twigs flexible, green and hairy (first year) to orange- brown and hairless (second year); buds slender, up to 1.5 cm long, reddish brown, overlapping scales Leaves: Light bluish-green, soft, slender straight, flexible, evergreen needles; needles 5-15 cm long, 3- sided, finely-toothed; bundled in 5s and sheathed with membraneous scales at the base; drop after 1-4 years. Cones: male and female cones on same tree; male cones yellow, small, clustered at base of this year’s growth; female cones light brown and woody when mature, cylindrical, often curved, 8-20 cm long, hanging on 2 cm long stalks; seeds mottled reddish-brown, 5-8 mm long with a 1.5-2 cm wing, 2 per scale Habitat: Dry rocky ridges to sphagnum bogs; does best on cool, humid sites with well-drained soil. Notes: Ontario’s provincial tree (iconic!). One of eastern N. America’s most valuable trees. The tall, straight trunks made excellent ship masts. Wood is used in construction. Fire adapted: bark resists fire, surviving trees shed their seeds after fire. Climax hardwood seedlings can grow in the shade of confers like EWP, eventually outcompeting them. Pine seedlings cannot grow in the shade of larger pines 23. red pine (Pinus resinosa) Size & shape: Coniferous trees up to 25 m tall; crowns conical when young, rounded and irregular with age. Trunks: Tall, straight, 75 cm in diameter; young bark reddish to pinkish-brown, scaly; mature bark with broad, scaly plates, 2.5-4 cm thick. Branches: Spreading or drooping (lower) to upcurved (upper); buds red-brown, 1.5-2 cm long, with white-fringed scales. Leaves: Shiny, dark green, evergreen needles; needles straight, 10-16 cm long, brittle (snap easily), finely sharp-toothed; bundled in 2s with persistent membraneous sheaths; crowded toward branch tips. Cones: male and female cones on same tree; male cones yellow, small, clustered at base of new shoots; female cones light chestnut-brown, woody, 4-7 cm long, stalkless, hanging at upper branch tips; scales only slightly thickened, concave, each tipped with a spineless bump; seeds mottled chestnut-brown, with a 1.5-1.8 cm wing, 2 per scale. Habitat: Dry, sandy or rocky areas; grows best in dry to moderate wet areas with light, slightly acidic, sandy loam. Notes: Important timber and pulp tree. Often used in reforestation projects and tree farms. 7 24. Scots (Scotch) pine (Pinus sylvestris) Size & shape: Coniferous trees up to 30 m tall; crowns cone shaped when young, becoming rounded and irregular with age. Trunks: Short and crooked with large branches, rarely straight and branch-free; young bark orange-red, papery, peeling in strips; mature bark greyish-brown to orange-brown, in irregular loose plates. Branches: Irregular, spreading; twigs greenish- to greyish-brown, sharp-tipped, 6-12 mm long, with some loose-tipped lower scales. Leaves: Slender, stiff, spirally twisted, dark blue-green evergreen needles; needles 4-8 cm long, sharp- pointed, finely toothed; bundled in 2s with persistent, 5-8 mm long, membraneous sheaths. Cones: male and female cones on same tree; male cones yellow, small, clustered at base of new shoots; female cones usually in 2s or 3s, woody, yellowish- to purplish-brown, 2.5-7 cm long, often asymmetrical and bent backwards on the branch; scales flattened, tipped with a (usually) spineless bump; seeds dark brown, 2-4 mm long, 1-1.5 cm wing soon lost, 2 per scale. Habitat: Second-growth woodlands and pine plantations. Introduced from Europe 25. jackpine (Pinus banksiana ) Size & shape: Small coniferous tree up to 20 m tall; crowns cone-shaped, open Trunks: Straight, up to 30 cm in diameter; young bark reddish- to greyish-brown, thin, flaky; mature bark 1-2.5 cm thick, with irregular, narrow, rounded ridges; wood heavy, close-grained. Branches: Spreading to ascending, often arched; twigs yellowish-green to purplish-brown, slender, flexible, ridged; buds cinnamon-brown, resinous, up to 1.5 cm long. Leaves: Stout, stiff, yellowish-green, evergreen needles; 2-4 cm long, straight or slightly twisted; sharp- pointed, finely toothed; bundled in 2s with spreading tips and sheathed bases. Cones: male and female cones on same tree; male cones yellow, 8-10 mm long, clustered at base of new shoots; female cones yellowish-brown when mature, shiny, woody, usually asymmetrical, 2.5-7.5 cm long, erect or nearso, mostly in 2s or 3s near branch tips; scales 80, glued shut with resin, their tips thick, smooth or with a tiny spine; seeds dark, 3 mm long with a pale, 8-10 mm wing, 2 per scale. Habitat: Dry, infertile, acidic, often sandy to rocky soil. Notes: used for lumber, pulp and paper. Fire-adapted: cones open with heat or fire 8 26. Tamarack, or larch (Larix laricina) Size & shape: Coniferous trees up to 25 m tall, roughly cone-shaped, irregular with age. Trunks: Usually straight, 40 cm in diameter; young bark grey, smooth, thin; mature bark light reddish- brown, with narrow, peeling scales; newly exposed bark reddish-purple. Branches: Of 2 types: long, slender, spreading branches with scattered leaves, often gracefully curved; and stubby, dwarf side-branches elongating slowly over many years; buds brown to dark red, hairless or ringed by hairs. Leaves: Light bluish-green, soft, slender deciduous needles, 2-5 cm long; tightly spiralled in clusters of 15-60 at tips of stubby side shoots; yellow when shed each autumn. Cones: male and female cones on same tree; male cones small, yellow; female cones yellow-green or reddish when young, pale brown when mature, 1-2 cm long, on short, curved stalks at tips of leafless, stubby side-branches; scales 10-20, stiff, hairless, longer than wide; seeds light brown, 3 mm long with 6 mm wing. Habitat: Usually cold, wet sites such as bogs and muskeg, but grows best on moist, well-drained upland sites. Notes: Wood is not valued as lumber. Tannin-rich bark was traditionally used for tanning leather. 27. white spruce (Picea glauca) Size & shape: Coniferous trees up to 25 m tall; crowns narrowly (northern) to broadly (southern) cone- shaped. Trunks: Tall, up to 60 cm diameter; mature bark dark grey, with thin, scaly plates; newly exposed bark pinkish. Branches: Bushy, spreading to drooping, up-curved at tips; twigs stout, pale greenish-grey to orange- brown, hairless, with many small, peg-like, leaf-bearing bumps; buds blunt, 6 mm long, with tight, ragged, hairless scales. Leaves: Straight, stiff, 4-sided evergreen needles; needles green, often with a greyish bloom, white- lined on all sides, 1.5-2.2 cm long, aromatic, spirally arranged but curved upward and crowded on the upper side. Cones: male and female cones on same tree; male cones yellow, 1.5-2 cm; female cones pale brown when mature, 3-6 cm long, cylindrical, resilient, stalkless, hanging near branch tips; scales thin, smooth- edged, close-fitting; seeds pale brown, 2-4 mm long with a wing 4-8 mm long, 2 behind each scale. Habitat: Wide range of soils and climates but prefers rich, moist soil. 9 Notes: important lumber tree, used extensively for pulp and paper, making boxes, shipping crates, rough lumber. Native peoples split the tough pliable roots to make cords for lacing bark canoes. Provincial tree of Manitoba. 28. black spruce (Picea mariana) Size & shape: Coniferous tree, columnar and 5-20 m tall on poorly drained sites, cone-shaped and up to 30 m tall on upland sites; crowns dense. Trunks: Straight, 15-30 cm diameter; mature bark dark greyish-brown with thin, irregular scales; newly- exposed bark olive- or yellowish-green. Branches: Short, spreading to drooping, upturned at tips; twigs dull orange- to yellowish-brown, with peg-like leaf-bearing bumps; new twigs minutely reddish-hairy; buds grey-brown, hairy, blunt, 3-5 mm long, with slender-pointed scales projecting beyond tips. Leaves: Stiff, straight, 4-sided, evergreen needles; needles greyish-green with whitish bloom, 8-15 mm long, short-stalked; spirally arranged, curved up and forward. Cones: male and female cones on same tree; male cones small, numerous; female cones dull greyish- to purplish-brown, rigid, 2-3 cm long, hanging on curved, short, scaly stalks near branch tips; scales thin, stiff, brittle, close-fitting and firmly attached; seeds 2 mm long with a 2-4 mm wing, 2 per scale. Habitat: Well-drained, moist flatlands in the north, to cool, damp sites (bogs) farther south. Notes: Used for pulp and fuel 29. eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) Size & shape: Coniferous trees up to 30 m tall, densely conical when young, irregular with age, tipped with a nodding leader. Trunks: Straight, up to 1 m in diameter; young bark reddish-brown, scaly; mature bark dark brown, furrowed, broadly rigged; inner bark bright reddish-purple. Branches: Slender, flexible, irregular, spreading, with drooping tips; forming flat, horizontal sprays; twigs hairy, with tiny, leaf-bearing bumps; buds brownish, hairy, 2 mm long. Leaves: Flat, flexible, evergreen needles, dark yellowish-green and grooved above, with 2 whitish bands within green margins beneath; 1-2 cm long, blunt or notched, edged with tiny teeth; spirally attached but twisted into 2 rows on one plane. 10 Cones: male and female cones on same tree, near branch tips; male cones yellowish, round; female cones light brown and dry when mature, 1.2-2 cm long, hanging on slender, hairy, 2-3 mm stalks; scales few, thin, the exposed part of the middle scales wider than long, smooth-edged to faintly toothed; seeds light brown, 1-2 mm long with 6-8 mm wing. Habitat: Cool, moist, shady, protected sites. Notes: poor-quality lumber (hard knots, wood splits) sometimes used in construction. Hemlock bark was once gathered commercially for leather tanning. 30. balsam fir (Abies balsamea) Size & shape: Coniferous trees 10-25 m tall, narrowly cone-shaped; crowns spire-like; roots shallow. Trunks: Straight, 50-70 cm in diameter; young bark thin, smooth, with blister-like pockets of aromatic resin; mature bark brownish, irregularly scaly. Branches: Stout, spreading; twigs slender, smooth, yellow-green to greyish, hairy buds dark orange- green, lustrous, broadly egg-shaped, 3-6 mm long, usually resinous. Leaves: Dark shiny green, flat evergreen needles, with 2 white bands on lower surface, 1.5-2.5 cm long on lower branches (1-1.2 cm long on upper branches), aromatic, blunt or notched, stalkless; spirally attached but twisted into 2 rows on one plane; leaf scars flat and round. Cones: male and female cones on same tree; male cones yellow, 4 mm long; female cones dark purple when young, erect, barrel shaped, 4-10 cm long, often resinous; seeds purple to brown, 3-6 mm long with a shiny, light brown wing 1-1.5 cm long, abundant. Habitat: Low, swampy ground to well-drained hillsides; needs moist soil and air. Notes: popular Christmas tree due to conical shape and persistent needles. Commonly used for timber and pulp. Resin, known as Canada balsam, used in mounting microscope slides, making glue, as fragrance in soap, perfumes, candles, soaps. Was widely used as an antiseptic. 32. Deciduous Trees -- Secondary Communities common buckthorn* (Rhamnus cathartica) Size & shape: Small trees or shrubs to 6 m tall; crowns rounded Trunks: Short, bark greyish-brown with elongated pores (lenticels), thin, smooth, peeling in curly-edged sheets. 11 Branches: Often spine-tipped; twigs rigid, or 2 types: long, smooth, rather angled shoots, and short, warty shoots with crowded leaf scars and/or thorn-like tips; buds scaly, blackish, flat-lying. Leaves: Mostly opposite, simple, palmate, deciduous; blades dark green, hairless, with 3-5 conspicuous, strongly upcurved veins per side, minutely blunt-toothed, broadly ovate to elliptic, 3-8 cm long, with tips abruptly pointed, slightly folded and often curved back; stalks hairy, grooved. Flowers: Greenish-yellow, <6 mm across; functionally unisexual with male and female flowers on separate plants; petals 4, lance-shaped, 1-1.3 mm long (male flowers) or 0.6 mm long (female flowers); sepals 4, fused; flowers on thread-like, unequal stalks in compact clusters (umbels) from leaf axis, in June Fruits: Green to red to purplish-black, berry-like drupes, 5-6 mm across; seeds single within grooved, nut-like stones, usually 4 stones per fruit; fruits in dense clusters, mature in Aug.-Sep. Habitat: Moist to dry pastures, clearings, woodlands and roadsides. Notes: Popular hedge plant; not native (introduced from Europe). Fruits are somewhat poisonous; traditionally used as a laxative. Retains its green leaves longer in autumn than many native species. *invasive, but so common, we need to be aware of it 33. Crabapple (Malus sp.) Size & shape: Small, widely spreading trees, up to 15 m tall; crowns low, broadly domed. Trunks: Short; mature bark dark brownish-grey with flaky plates. Branches: Spreading, crooked, with stubby (not thorn-like) spur-shoots; twigs and buds hairy. Leaves: Alternate, simple, deciduous; blades dark green above, lightly to densely hairy beneath, untwisting from bud, elliptic to ovate, 4-10 cm long, abruptly pointed, rounded at the base, edged with fine, sharp teeth; stalks hairy; leaves yellow in autumn. Flowers: Showy, pink, fading white, 3 cm across, bisexual; sepals hairy on outside; anthers yellow, numerous; flowers borne in small clusters on spur-shoots in spring (after the leaves expand). Fruits: Large (6-12 cm in diameter) to small (2-3 cm across) Habitat: Along roadsides and fence lines, and in understorey of deciduous woodlands. 34. riverbank (wild) grape (Vitis riparia) Size & shape: Climbs on other plants, up to 17 m tall. 12 Trunks: Mature vines have loose, fissured bark, and may attain several inches in diameter. Branches: Grape tendrils most often are found growing from a stalk opposite from a leaf. Leaves: Alternate, often with opposite tendrils or inflorescences, coarsely toothed, 5–25 cm (2–10in) long and 5–20 cm (2–8in) broad, sometimes with sparse hairs on the underside of veins. Flowers: The inflorescence is paniculate 4–15 cm (1.5–6 in) long and loose, and the flowers are small, fragrant, dioecious, and white or greenish in color. V. riparia blooms in May or June Fruits: small 6–15 mm blue-black berry (grape) with a bloom, seeded, juicy, edible, vinous in flavor Habitat: native American climbing or trailing vine, widely distributed. Grows in many locations such as along roadsides, fence rows, forest edges and along river banks. They are also sometimes found in hardwood forests, growing up along with the trees after logging, fire, or a windfall as they cannot reproduce in the shade. Notes: used to make flavorful homemade jellies, jams, and wine 35. red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea) Size & shape: Small trees or large, straggly shrubs 4-6 m tall; crowns flat, layered. Trunks: Short, 5-10 cm in diameter; young bark greenish to reddish-brown, thin, smooth; mature bark shallow-ridged Branches: almost horizontal with upcurved tips, in tiers; twigs shiny reddish-green to purplish, with pores (lenticels) and often with 1-2 side branches longer than the central shoot; buds shiny chestnut- brown, with 2 loose scales. Leaves: Opposite, simple, usually 2-4 at branch tips, deciduous blades, green above, greyish-green below, elliptic to oval, with parallel veins arched towards the tip, 5-15 cm long, narrow pointed, slightly waxy-edged. Flowers: small (5–10 mm diameter), dull white, in clusters 3–6 cm diameter., dense 20-30-flowered clusters at the centre of 4 white or pinkish, petal-like bracts (each 2-5 cm long and tipped
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