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Lecture 35

BIOL 355 Lecture 35: Lecture 35

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BIOL 355
Dr.Cheryl Duxbury

Lecture 35 Changes in fibrocartilage (intervertebral disc) Tough but compressible cartilage Vertebral bodies + discs support weight of body Discs have soft center called nucleus pulposus Adds support and also shock absorption With age: Fibrocartilage shrinks (loss of water in matrix) Nucleus pulposus becomes weaker, crumbly As fibrocartilage and nucleus pulposus degrade, cannot support pressure of body and as vertebral bodies push down, disc is displaced to one side Herniated disc results and leads to back pain by pinching nerves in spine Normal aged vertebrae: Centre of vertebral body weakens Instead of herniating, nucleus pulposus expands into center of body More weight placed on outside of vertebrae Results in characteristic decrease in height with age Arthritis (joint inflammation) Osteoarthritis: degenerative arthritis Most common form arthritis Affects 16 million in USA 75 of those 75+ will have OA in at least one joint affects articular cartilage normally associated with stiff, inflamed, tender joints associated pain, swelling, tissues ligaments tendons, muscles any joint but mostly weight bearing joints theory is it is wear ad tear disease over a life time causes them to degenerate gradually when join is used enzymes are released that break down the cartilage normally damaged cartilage continuously replaced with new cartilage with increased age there is a decrease in the formation of new cartilage more hyaline cartilage is destroyed than replaced deterioration of articular cartilage, cushioning lost, friction increases cartilage frays, fragments of cartilage released into joint space causes joint to inflame if progresses cartilage fully lost and exposes bone surface and bone will rub against bone new outgrowth of bone produced in response (bony spurs) growth of bone into synovial cavity limits joint movement, increase pain and increase stiffness
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