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BIOL 359
Jonathan Witt

Phylogenetic: the study of relationships between ancestors and descendants Plesimorph: earliest common ancestor Automorph: derived character state 2 type: synapomorph: derived state containing 2 or more taxa from a common ancestor that is not the pleasiomorphy, used in parsimony Autapomorphy: 1 lineage, Monophyletic: all the character states including ancestor and descendants Paraphyletic: contain some not all descendants Polyphyletic: erroneously grouped species based on homoplasy Mullers Ratchet: a population that is doomed to extinction because of an increase in genetic load where the amount of deleterious mutations is greater than favored genotypes, caused by asexual selection and lack of genetic variation 2 types of limits of adaptation: Trade Offs: antagonistic adaptation- a favoured trait that also comes with negatives (ex. Sexual selection favours big gonapodium but natural selection works against it) Constraint: factors that limit the rate of adaptation ex. Genetic or ecological Linkage Disequilibrium: two genes on a chromosome close together that can be broken up through crossing over and recombination Red Queen Hypothesis: example of a trade off – the evolutionary advancement of a species causes the deterioration to another species and as the env shifts, the susceptibility to one switches and the resistance does too. You get an arms race to species that can evolve the fastest to keep up with evolution. Advantages of asexual: they do not need to find a mate; they can colonize a population on their own Advantages of sexual: genetic variation, favourable genotypes and new genotypes, mullers ratchet prevented through control of deleterious mutations, males help raise kids , control of evolving env (r.q.h) Sexual Dimorphism: a trait that is different in both males and females, occurs through natural selection and allows one to find a mate better S
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