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University of Waterloo
BIOL 462
Barry Warner

Lec 3:  Wetlands can occur in areas of sustained saturation  Geomorphology/ local water budget = KEY Four types of Wetlands Based On Geomorphology: Discharge Wetland Seepage Wetland Floodplain Wetland Recharge Wetland GW discharge where GW discharge by GW discharge from From precipitation land surface seepage/breaks in streams underland by complex slope No inflow from streams, lakes, or GW flow fields oceans NOTE: A) other GW terrain: Karst (bedrock) B) non-GW terrain: sea coast C) Permafrost: ice dominated processes Ground Water Flow systems: Local GW flow system Regional GW flow system Intermediate GW flow system  Recharged: at topographic  Recharged: at major b/w two other systems highs regional topographic highs Discharged: at adjacent lows Discharged: at major regional topographic lows ENERGY  Landscape geomorphology influences how/where water moves. ENERGY: DRIVING FORCE OF WATER MOVEMENT IN WETLENDS: o Direction/rate of water movement into/out of wetlands is dependent on energy o Moves from zones of high energy to areas of low energy , driven by gravity Hydrology: Infiltration Overland Flow ET Groundwater Flow movement of water precipitation Evaporation: subsurface into the ground exceeds maximum movement from water movement of water in infiltration rate body to atmosphere vadose zone complicated by soil physics transpiration: (unsaturated), movement from plant increase in organic tissue to atmosphere and below water table matter= increase in (saturated zone) infiltration Key Hydrological characteristics: A. Water levels in Wetlands- aka water able B. Wetland hydroperiod/hydropattern C. Wetland Water Residence TIME Water Levels In Wetland Wetland hydro period/pattern Wetland Water Residence Time A) Above surface Hydroperiod: Water Budgets: same as elevation of SW in measure of extent wetland important for characterizing water sources, wetlands remains saturated. sinks, thus behaviour of wetlands B) Below surface Biota dependent on inputs – outputs = change in storage hydroperiod/pattern: water, soil interface b/w complete (water residence time) surface, and soil inhabiting biota saturation of pore space Plot water table over time : Inputs: P, GW, SW, TF, OLF, OBF reveals seasonal pattern of interface in porous media where: pore pressure= wetlands : HYDROGRAPH Outputs: SW, GW, ET, OLF, TF atmospheric pressure Hydrograph ∆V Inputs-outputs = ∆ S= ∆T TO MEASURE WT:  stage: period of time that shows *Measure on surface if exposed, the range of variation in dig a hole, use water well. hydrological variability as reflected by elevation of water Usually expressed as m.a.s.l or Errors In estimating Water Budget: above datum and plotted. table: 12 months associated with inputs/outputs: hydrological sig of wetland
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