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Lecture 7

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Classical Studies
CLAS 201
Nicholas Maes

CLAS 201 Lecture 7 NotesReview from Last ClassThe Spartan government is composed of element of monarchy democracy and oligarchyoThe ephors are watching over everyone ordinary Spartans that ensure the political system and way of life is maintainedoThere are 2 kings one looks after the army and one looks after domestic affairsoThere is an oligarchy when men reach an age of 60 they can retire from the army and start a political career they are too old to fight on the battlefield so they put their experience to the discretion of the stateoThere is a democratic component called the apella the general assembly all males above the age of 30 are allowed to vote on certain initiatives brought to their attention by the gerousiaGenerally speaking the people who are making the decisions are people who are of an age that are fully formed by the system oTo vote you must be at least 30 meaning you are not going to vote for weird or bizarre initiativesoSimilarly in the gerousia you can only be a part of it by being a king 2 of them or being over 60 28 of them meaning that these people are conservative and would not likely to experiment and the general nature of Sparta will continueSparta is always wrestling with the issue of manpower because it lives in an odd state of tension with Messenia helots it is outnumbered by them and never want to expend their resources in a reckless fashionoThey are in perpetual war with the helotsoThey justify the violence they impose on the helots by waging war with them and do so annuallyThey use their resources very carefully they will not squander their manpower by getting into wars that are not rational and will only fight in good reasonsThe Spartans are not on their own they can draw on the periokoi and the Peloponnesian LeagueoThe Spartan numbers are between 5000 and 6000oPeriokoi means those who live around us and must fight with the SpartansoThe League is composed of citystates that live in the southern PeloponneseAll the cities that are not periokoi are in an alliance with SpartaSparta can invite them to their campaigns they do not have to say yes but more often than not they fightSparta can draw manpower that reaches to 125000 to 150000 troops it has a great deal of power behind itoSparta is easily the strongest land armyThe Persian War was a result of the Ionian rebellionThere was a character by the Aristagoras a disreputable Greek who was a tyrant of Miletus and wanted to extend his rule to the island of NaxosHe convinces the Persian King Darius to lend him a fleet with which he was going to invade NaxosDarius does so but does not trust Aristagoras so he sends Megabates to accompany himThere is tension between the two and Megabates warns the people of Naxos of the attackAristagoras is unsuccessful he knows he will be killed if he returns as a failure he decides to become a Greek freedom fighter and unites the Ionians to overthrow the Persian ruleHe invites the Spartans and Athenians to helpoThe Spartans say no because they are conservative with their resourcesoAthenians send help to the Ionian with this help the rebellion lasts for 4 yearsoThe city of Sardis is burned which meant a lot to DariusDarius redoubles his effort and crushes the rebellion subjugates them once burns Miletus belonged to Aristagoras and decides he is going to wage war on the Greek MainlandHe puts together a large fleet and sent it across the Aegean under the control of two Persians Artaphernes and DatisThe Persians land on an island off the coast of Athens called Euboea with a city state called EretriaThey destroy Eretria and proceed to fight AthensThe Athenians march to Marathon to meet with the Persians which is 26 miles 285 yards away from Athens hence the famous raceThe Athenians surprisingly are victorious the Persians retreat after suffering 6400 casualties and this ends the first Persian War Up until this time Athens has been a backwater with its success against the Persians they are becoming a renowned force in GreeceSecond Persian WarIf one is to own an empire they nurse grudges and are always thinking whether or not you can allow a population for getting away after committing some kind of violence against the empireYou have to rule with a mix of ruthlessness and clemency if one is to control the empireDarius successor is named Xerxes and comes to the throne in 486 BCEoHe comes to the throne 4 years after the end of the first Persian WarHe decides that he should take vengeance against the GreeksHerodotus is again our source of information for this waroHe says that Xerxes thought about this for a great deal and decides to go through with itoXerxes decides the fleet he sends will be far larger than the fleet that was sent by ndstDarius the 2 Persian War is much more ambitious in scale than the 1 Persian WarXerxes begins to gather his forces a summon is made across the Persian Empire notifying that the population must gather at a certain point and to bring food and soldiers and together this force will sail and march on Greece
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