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Lecture 6

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Classical Studies
CLAS 201
Nicholas Maes

CLAS 201 Lecture 6Review from Last ClassSolons reform changed the structure of Athens he divides the population as a way of dealing with certain problems that have developed as a result of currencyoThe introduction of currency is highly destabilizing people are enslaved losing their territory etcoThere are 4 classes of citizen based on a property holdingPentakosimedimnoi produced more than 500 bushels Hippeis meaning horse riders or cavalry produced between 300 and 500 bushels Zeugitae produced between 200 and 300 bushels Thetes produced less than 200 bushels As well Solon replaces the Areopagus council with the boul as the higher assemblyoConsists of all populations except for the thetes oConsists of 400 peopleThe thetes are allowed into the general assembly the ekklesiaHe also creates the Heliaea as a court of appealsHe writes these laws and places them on axons for all to see the laws on these axons may be referred to axons as a wholeSolon exiles himself for 10 years and assumes everything will work out wellUnfortunately this is not the case stasis civil war or civil tension breaks outThe Athenian is essentially divided geographically not politically and economically into 3 groupsoPeople of the coastoPeople of the hillsoPeople of the plainsThere are people who do not have quite as much as they would like and the people who have very little they start quarrellingThis fighting allows Pisistratus to take hold of Athens he seizes power unconstitutionally meaning he is a tyrantHe runs the state in such a way that the population is happy and satisfied even in an autocratic time it is important to have the bulk of the people on your side because if you do not they will not fight for youHe maintains Solons reforms but he sits at the top of societyHe brings in an economic boom under his rule the Laurion silver mine was discoveredoHe uses the money from this to further trade of items such as olive oil and wineoHe creates several festivals to keep the population distracted and entertainedHe finds the Panathenaic festival and the Dionysian festival DionysiaHe identifies his own reign with that of TheseusHis rule is so sound that he ends up dying in his bed which is atypical of a tyrantHe is able to pass on his rule to his 2 sons Hippias and HipparchusEverything runs smoothly for the first couple of years until there is a love triangle with Hipparchus Aristogeiton and HarmodiusoHipparchus falls in love with HarmodiusoHarmodius is a very young man likely 16 or 17This is below the age of majority which is very importantIn a relationship with the eromenos passive member and erastes older active member the eromenos has to be below the age of majority because under other circumstances assuming the passive position is very degradingIt would be considered behaviour unbecoming to a citizen and you could lose your citizen rights as a resultThis is typically why a homosexual relationship takes place between a man and a boyoHarmodius is spoken for so Hipparchus insults him by refusing to allow his sister to walk in the Panathenaic festivaloHarmodius and Aristogeiton take the law into their own hands and kill HipparchusoAt first they are considered to be horrible people and criminals they are put to deathOver the next few years Hippias becomes so paranoid about guarding his control of the state his rules becomes harsher and he alienates the population which causes the population to run him out of the cityNow Harmodius and Aristogeiton are regarded as heroesOnce these tyrants are gone Athens falls back in a state of stasisoYou need a strong man to keep the system goingThe hills plains and coast are still fighting with one another so Cleisthenes come in with his reformsoHe divides the population like Solon but he keeps the original system of pentakosimedimnoi hippeis zeugitae and thetes in parallel with hisoHis division is that he divides the population into 30 trittyes and there are 10 trittyes to each region hill coast and plainoHe composes 10 tribes drawing 1 trittys from each regionoA new boule of 500 people is created with 50 people from each tribe nominated every year to have a seatoEach tribe will get to control the state for a tenth of the year in controlling the state they try to make their own tribe appear as just and good leaders so each trittys from the different areas will have to cooperate with one anotheroThis gets rid of a significant amount of political tension in the citySparta was created from the asynoecism of 5 villagesThe Spartans were very marshal and gradually took the surrounding city states that lived in Laconia and called them periokoi meaning people who live around usThe periokoi are not slaves of the SpartanoThey have freedom their own customs and to possess wealthoThe only control that the Spartans insist on exerting over them is their foreign
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