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University of Waterloo
COMM 101
Laura Allan

Operations - Sustainability Thursday, March 14, 2013 2:24 AM Critical Success Factors (Indicators of Business Success) • Achieving financial performance • Meeting customer needs • Providing quality products and services • Encouraging innovation and creativity • Gaining employee commitment Key Chapter Concepts - Achieving World-Class Operations Management • 3 Decisions at 3 Stages ○ Planning – starts with product design (match voice of customer to voice of engineer  Production types and processes □ Mass production vs mass customization Mass production technology New economic reality - Stable market conditions - Constant change - Efficiency vs effectiveness - Customer-driven - Repetition - Customization □ Type of product & process to use  Choice of location and facility layout □ Link between type of production, process used, and layout  Resource planning and supply chain management □ Make or buy? – outsourcing □ Inventory management – liqudity □ Poster company - wal-mart □ Flow from supplier to customer with brief stop in store ○ Controlling  Routing and scheduling □ When you are going to get sales and when cash collected, when pay suppliers  Quality and cost control □ Harley-Davidson – productivity-quality connection  Going bankrupt => focused on efficiency & effectiveness => changed operations ○ Improving  Application of technology • Trends Service vs. Manufacturing (not covered in textbook) - Both transform “raw material” into finished good, BUT in service… • Raw material is person with unsatisfied need or possession that requires care • Service is performed not produced • Focus on process as well as outcome ○ Judged on quality of work and service ○ 2 layers that you have to consider • Characteristics are different ○ Intangible – experience key, customized, can’t be stored • Customer is part of process Extent of contact contact affects operations ○ Extent of contact contact affects operations • Impacts capacity • Integration of marketing and operations ○ Demand / Capacity tradeoff • Manufacturing ○ Set capacity slightly ahead of demand □ Expensive to add / sit idle □ In short term turn away customers or outsource at lower margins ○ Seasonality – shift demand and capacity requirements by pricing • Service ○ Low contact – set capacity to average demand ○ High contact – set capacity at peak demand □ Ex haircuts and restaurants. A Service btw. □ Have to have enough for when people want your good. Sustainability - “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs” UN World Commission on Environment and Development • Measured by the Triple Bottom Line – Andy Savitz ○ Triple bottom line - got to recognize today that bottom line is effected by combination of factors ○ Profit/Environment/Society – People/Planet/Profit ○ “sustainability sweet spot” - place where corporate and societal interests intersect – a new way to measure the bottom line - strongest, most profitable bottom line • Dow Jones Sustainability Index ○ Measure performance of leading sustainability companies around world ○ Successful companies around the world support theory of triple bottom line • Global 100 Most Sustainable Corporations in the World ○ • Global Reporting Initiative – guidelines ○ 1,000 companies, 80% of Global Fortune 150 ○ more holistic image of company Sustainable Operations • the Next Industrial Revolution ○ Change way we do things in business • Ways to weave sustainability into operations: ○ Product design  “Cradle to Cradle” design  Biomimicy ○ Product Stewardship ○ Sustainability through servicing ○ Sustainability of the supply chain Cradle–to–Cradle Design • Take-make-waste model – Cradle to Grave design (ends up in landfill) ○ Eco-efficient – “less bad” – 3Rs design - not good enough to fix situation • Eco-effective design based on nature’s design principles ○ Initial design - instead of mixing what we did, plan it to not need to be
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