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CS 458 (13)

Summaries These are some summaries for module 4 Encryption and module 5 network

7 Pages

Computer Science
Course Code
CS 458
Ian Goldberg

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Module 4 - Summary Cryptology: science that studies both - Cryptography: Making Secret Messages - Cryptanalysis: breaking secret Messages Cryptography major components 1- Confidentiality: prevent eve from reading Alice’s messages 2- Integrity: prevent Mallory from modifying Alice’s messages 3- Authenticity: prevent Mallory form impersonating Alice Kerckhoffs’ Principle : the security of a cryptosystem should not rely on a secret that’s hard ( or expensive ) to change Note: - A strong cryptosystem is one where the most eve can do is try all the keys used to specify which encryption method was used ( “computation” security ) - Assumptions of what eve might know o Know the algorithm ( aka the class of the encryption method ) o Know part of the plain text o Know a number of corresponding plaintext/ciphertext o Have access to an encryption or decryption oracle - Goal of cryptography is to make sure the information transfer is not the weakest link ( send secure messages over an insecure medium ) Symmetric-key Encryption - Simplest and used for years , but hard part is exchanging keys One-Time Pad - Unbreakable, simple idea, hard to use correctly , “information-theoretic” security - Description: o The key is random bitstring of the same length as the message o The encrypt and decrypt functions are just XOR - Note: o Key must be truly random not pseudorandom o Key must never be used more than once Types of Symmetric Ciphers 1- Stream Ciphers - Description: o Same as One-Time Pad but with pseudorandom keystream , operate on the message one bit a time - Pro o Very fast, used to send a lot of data securely - Con o Tricky to use, using the same key to encrypt two different messages might be used to exploit the encryption - Example: RC4 ( bad examples WEP and PPTP ) 2- Block Ciphers - Description: o Operate on the message one block at a time ( 64/128 bit long) - Mode of operation: the choice of what to do with multiple blocks o Electronic Code Book: encrypt each successive block separately, but if there were repeated blocks in the plain text, you’ll see repeating patterns in the cipher text o Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) Counter (CTR) modes, needs an initial Value ( IV ) which acts as a salt no patterns will be exposed - Example: AES Public-Key Cryptography - its asymmetric, one key for locking, another key for unlocking - examples: RSA , ElGamal , ECC all public key methods have shortcuts that eve can use to read the message much easily, weaker than symmetric key AES of same bit size. Also it takes a longer time to calculate Hybrid Cryptography (most used) 1- Pick a random 128-key for symmetric key cryptosystem 2- Encrypt the large message with that symmetric key 3- Encrypt the 128-key with the public key cryptosystem 4- Send the symmetric-encrypted message and the public encrypted key to bob Note: - this doesn’t protect against Mallory modifying the encrypted messages, bit- flipping attack Integrity component - Checksum o Add up all the bytes of a message, and the last digit is the checksum. Alice o Steps: computers the checksum and sticks it to the end of the message before encrypting it to bob. Bob receives the message and verifies that the checksum is correct o Problem: Mallory can still change the message in a way that will have the same checksum, need to use cryptographic checksums - Hash functions: ( cryptographic checksums ) o Properties  One-Way (Pre-Image): given a hash value; its hard to find a message which hashes to that value  Collision-Resistant (collision): its hard to find two messages which hash to the same value o Problem: easy to find collisions due to the birthday paradox o Example: MD5, SHA-1, SHA-256 Module 5- Network Security Threats: - Port scan: o Description: Attacker sends queries to ports on target machine and tries to identify whether and what kind of application is running on a port o Reason: find an application with remotely exploitable flaw o Keywords: loose-lipped systems ( reveal non-confidential info about system), nmap tool ( used to identify many applications ) - Social Engineering o Description: pretend to be somebody else to exploit people willing to help o Reason: attackers gather sensitive information from a person o Keywords: dumpster diving ( look through the garbage to know more about the person ) - Eavesdropping and wiretapping o Description:  Passive wiretapping (eavesdropping): Node owner monitors communication flowing through node  Active wiretapping: involves modification pr fabrication of communication o Keywords: assume that your communication is wiretapped - Packet Sniffer o Description: attacker can capture packets sent by mistake to other nodes beside the receiver in a LAN network, by changing the behavior of the network card - Impersonation o Impersonate a person by stealing their password  Done by: guessing, default password, sniff password, social engineering o Exploit trust relationship between machines/accounts  Rhost/rlogin: example SSL - Spoofing o Description: object masquerades as another one o Reason: used for session hijacking, man-in-the-middle attacks, phishing attacks o Keywords: URL spoofing, page spoofing - Session Hijacking o Description: attacker hijacks a session which is set up between sender and receiver to exchange packets, or sniff/steal cookies used to re-identify clients for future visits o Reason: mascaraed as one of the end nodes or specifically as client , becomes stealth intermediate node -
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