ENGL104 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Sophist, Pathos

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2 Aug 2016

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4th Class: Chapter 2 Take Up
From Chapter 1
ofunction of ideology is to define what’s normal/natural
oreinforce through social practice
eg. Capitalism: structures our life: jobs, ads, system of interpretation it’s
good to have money
oend of chapter one is good for analysis of a rhetorical artifact
oAds can have variation, but there is still a common form for them (constrained
by formal rules)
Sophists started to teach about writing and public speaking
oWould teach and travel on how to sway people
Plato: oldest western philosopher
oThought that the sophists weren’t all that, thought rhetoric was used for bad
oThought rhetoric could be applied for good and bad
oThought that there were ways to use it for good that outlived the bad
oRhetoric definition to him: the faculty of observing of any given case the means
of persuasion
oDidn’t think of it as a language, thinks of it as an order for public speaker
What is the best possible way to persuade people?
oDeliberate/Political debates, Forensic/judicial rhetoric (law courts),
epideictic/ceremonial rhetoric (wedding speech, ceremonial speech)
Judicial has to do with the past, accusing or defending a person, deals
with topics of justice or injustice, what happened and what should the
punishment be?
Ceremonial has to do with the present, tells people they are worthy of
blame or love
Political has to do with the future, it is goal oriented
oThe above don’t always apply to what happens today, although it is pretty close
oGoes on to say that there are 3 modes of truth (to convince the audience)
***useful terms, applicable to contemporary rhetoric**
Ethos: ethical appeal, has to do with the audience’s perception of the
character, is the speaker trustworthy, are they knowledgeable, do they
give an aura of confidence, do they share your ethics/viewpoints
Logos: logic, means word, order/system, pathway, has to do with how
the speech effects persuasion by presenting logic (or the appearance of
logic), what’s the main argument, what evidence are you using
Pathos: emotional reactions, centred around the audience, eg. The use of
witnesses in court rooms (emotional reaction on the jury), anecdotes,
anything that can arise an emotional response
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